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Florida's Comprehensive 
Historic Preservation Plan 






State | Division of Historical Resources 



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Sunrise Theatre, Fort Pierce, 
Florida Division of Historical Resources 



Introduction 5 

Viva Florida 500 

Why Have a Statewide Historic Preservation Plan? 

Chapter 1 

Overview of Florida's Pre-history & History 8 

Chapter 2 

Planning in Florida, A Public Policy 12 

Chapter 3 

Preservation Partners 15 

Federal Government 

Seminole Tribal Historic Preservation Office (THPO) 
State Government 

Other Florida Department of State Programs 
Advisory Boards and Support Organizations 
Other State Agencies 

Formal Historic Preservation Academic Programs 
Local Governments 
Non-Profit Organizations 

Chapter 4 

Florida's Resources, An Assessment 48 

Recent Past 
Historic Landscapes 
Urbanization and Suburbanization 
Results from Statewide Survey of Local Historic 
Preservation Programs 
African-American Resources 
Hispanic Resources 

Maritime Resources 

Recreation and Tourism 
Folklife Resources 

Chapter 5 

How This Plan Was Developed 59 

Public Survey 

Survey Results 



Timeframe of the Plan and Revisions 

Chapter 6 

Vision for Historic Preservation in Florida 63 

Goals, Objectives and Suggested Strategies 

Chapter 7 

A Brief Timeline of Florida History 69 

Chapter 8 

Bibibliography and Other Resources 

Useful Links 
Florida's Historical Contexts 

Multiple Property Submission Covers 


Thematic or Property Types 

Local Areas 
Heritage Trails 
Social Media 

Front Cover 

Full Page: Florida's Historic State Capitol, Tallahassee 

Top: American Shoals Schooner, Florida Keys 

Middle: The Freedom Tower, Miami 

Bottom: Stuart Feed Supply, Stuart 

All Images: Florida Division of Historical Resources 




The preparation of a statewide comprehensive historic preservation plan intended for everyone across the state 
involved many people. We are greatly appreciative of the regional staff from the Florida Public Archaeology 
Network (FPAN) who hosted public meetings in five communities across the state, and to Jeannette Peters, 
the consultant who so ably led those meetings. Preservation actually happens at the local level, so the input 
from those who attended the public meetings and answered our survey was especially helpful in developing the 
plan. Special thanks goes to Sue Henry Renaud, the National Park Service's just retired Preservation Planning 
Program manager, who provided keen insight and allowed us extended time to be able to incorporate valuable 
input from our State Historic Preservation Officer, Robert F. Bendus. 

In many ways the last several years have been a time of great transition and challenge for historic preservation in 
Florida, and new perspectives linked with ever emerging new technologies have led us to some new approaches 
in our preservation efforts. Numerous individuals deserve our thanks: FPAN's director, William Lees and 
members of his staff: Cheryl Phelps (Pensacola), Sarah Miller (St. Augustine), Rachel Wentz (Cocoa), Michele 
Williams (Fort Lauderdale), and Jeff Moates (St. Petersburg). Thanks, too, to Barbara West with the Florida 
Historical Society who assisted with the public meeting in Cocoa. Thanks to the many staff members at the 
Division of Historical Resources and Department of State who also provided support and assistance, especially: 
Alissa Slade Lotane, Chief of the Bureau of Historical Resources; Mary Glowacki, State Archaeologist and 
Chief of the Bureau of Archaeological Research (BAR); Mike Wisenbaker, BAR Archaeologist; Angie Tomlinson, 
Historic Preservation Fund Grant Manager; Chip Birdsong and the Florida Master Site File staff; and Blaine 
Waide, State Folklorist. 

I would like to express my personal thanks to Andrew Waber and Susanne Hunt, my colleagues in the Bureau of 
Historic Preservation, who worked so long and diligently by my side to produce this plan. 

BahLvia £ MattLck, PL V. 

Deputy State Historic Preservation Officer 
for Survey & Registration 

The Bureau of Historic Preservation, Division of Historical Resources, 
Florida Department of State prepared this document in accordance 
with National Park Service requirements for states to participate in 
the National Historic Preservation Program, and in accordance with 
state requirements that the Division of Historical Resources develop a 
comprehensive statewide historic preservation plan (Chapter 267.031 
(5)(b), Florida Statutes). 

This publication has been financed in part with Federal funds from the 
National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. However, the 
contents and opinions do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of 
the Department of the Interior, nor does the mention of trade names 
or commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation by 
the Department of the Interior. 

This program receives Federal financial assistance for identification and 
protection of historic properties. Under Title VI of the Civil Rights 
Act of 1964, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and the 
Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as amended, the U.S. Department of 
the Interior prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, national 
origin, disability, or age in its federally assisted programs. If you believe 
you have been discriminated against in any program, activity, or facility 
as described above, or if you desire further information, please write 
to: Office of Equal Opportunity, National Park Service, 1849 C Street, 
N.W. Washington, D.C. 20240. 

Courtesy Florida Humanities Council, 
Image created by Christopher Still 

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Images: Florida Division of Historical Resources 


Like the rest of the country, Florida has been challenged by 
the nations recent economic struggles. As Florida is faced 
with the need to create thousands of new jobs, the state's 
preservation community has an opportunity to spotlight 
one of the major benefits of historic preservation. As 

Donovan Rypkema, a nationally recognized expert on 

historic preservation, points out, 

A frequently under appreciated component of historic 
buildings is their role as natural incubators of small 
businesses . . . 85% of all net new jobs are created by firms 
employing less than 20 people. One of the few costs firms 
of that size can control is occupancy costs/rents. In both 
downtowns, but especially in neighborhood commercial 
districts a major contribution to the local economy is 
the relative affordability of older buildings. (Donovan 
Rypkema, "Sustainability and Historic Preservation, " 

The need to preserve our physical environment 

is widely acknowledged. Recent studies have 

shown that the preservation of historic buildings 

also benefits our communities environmentally. 

"Green," sustainable buildings have become a 

catchword in recent years: "The greenest building 

is the one that is already built." Donovan 

Rypkema stated that "Historic preservation is, in 

and of itself, sustainable development" (Annual 

Conference of Historic Districts Council in New 

York City on March 10, 2007, "Sustainability, 

Smart Growth and Historic Preservation"). 

Historic Preservation benefits our physical 

environment, but it also enhances our cultural 

environment. By preserving our archaeological, folk, and 
built environment, we will, for ourselves and for those who 
visit Florida, reinforce who we are as Floridians. As our 
world gets smaller and smaller through the ease of travel 
and virtually instantaneous communication, globalization 
threatens to destroy our distinct cultural identities. 
Rypkema, quotes Belinda Yua of Singapore as saying, "... 
influences of globalization have fostered the rise of heritage 
conservation as a growing need to preserve the past, both 
for continued economic growth and for strengthening 
national cultural identity" ("Sustainability and Historic 
Preservation" talk). What is true for nations is true for 
states, and the preservation of who we are as Floridians 
begins with an appreciation of our local histories and 
historical and cultural resources. Two studies, the 2010 
update of the Economic Impacts of Historic Preservation 
in Florida and the Contributions of Historic Preservation 
to the Quality of Life in Florida, issued in November 2006, 
amply show that these assertions hold true in Florida. 

Viva Florida 500 

In 2011, through the American Latino Heritage 
Initiative, the United States Secretary of the Interior Ken 
Salazar called for states to take a more proactive role in 
recognizing their Hispanic heritage. His call came just 
as the Florida Department of State and its many partners 
were planning events and experiences to commemorate 
the 500 th anniversary of Juan Ponce de Leon's 1513 
landing in Florida. The initiative, Viva Florida 500, will 
recognize the cultural phenomenon that began when 
Ponce and his crew came ashore on Florida's east coast 


and named it La Florida. The event is a milestone unlike 
any other in the history of the United States, for Ponce's 
convoy of explorers was the first group of Europeans to 
document such a landing, and the first recorded Europeans 
to explore any part of what is now the United States of 

• In 2013, Florida will commemorate Viva Florida 500 
— the state's 500 th anniversary — marked from 1513 
when Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon landed 
on Florida's east coast. This historic occasion provides 
us with an opportunity to place the Florida story in 
context and to expand the narrative 
of American history to include its 
Spanish colonial past. 

This commemoration will celebrate 
the diverse multicultural state 
that Florida has been from the 
start. And we will not forget the 
perspective from the shore — the 
indigenous native tribes who made 
this peninsula home long before 
Europeans set foot on this continent. 
Thanks to an ever-increasing body 
of archaeological findings we now 
have fascinating insights into these 



pre-Columbian cultures. (Janine Farver, 
Florida Humanities Council, Forum 
Magazine, Vol. XXXV, No. 3, Fall 2011, 
Viva Florida Marking 500 years of Spanish 

Florida's documented material history dates 
back more than 12,000 years earlier to American 
Indians, who were the original pioneers. But 
Spain's claim in 1513 began a new era in human 
history that saw many nationalities come together 
as the foundation that eventually formed the 
United States of America. Today, 
a countless number of different 
cultures thrive together in Florida. 
Viva Florida 500 will celebrate all 
of them and their impact on the 
history of Florida. 

It is clear that now is the time for 
Florida's historic preservationists 
to harness their collective power 
to advance the cause of historic 
preservation in the state. 

Mission San Luis, Tallahassee 
Florida Division of Historical Resources 

■ *■#&& 

Images: Florida Division of Historical Resources 

Why Have a Statewide Historic Preservation Plan? 

Planning is an invaluable tool to identify the major issues that affect preservation efforts around the state. The funding 

of preservation projects, resource protection, public education, and increased intergovernmental coordination are just 

a few of the many issues facing Florida's preservationists today. The primary purpose of Florida's historic preservation 

plan is to provide guidance for the implementation of sound planning procedures for the location, identification, and 

protection of the state's archaeological and historic resources. Planning uses many tools, including economic and 

demographic analysis, natural and cultural resource evaluation, goal setting, and strategic planning. The development 

and implementation of a sound, well-coordinated comprehensive preservation plan should assist Florida's preservation 

organizations in their efforts to protect the state's rapidly dwindling historic and archaeological resources. 

Planning is most effective when developed in response to the needs of the citizens of the state, and public participation 
is essential. At each stage, there must be active public involvement in developing the vision, issues, and objectives of 
the plan and in helping to achieve its goals. It is also necessary to understand changes that are affecting the state as 
a whole so that preservation programs can be designed to respond in the most effective manner. 

Daytona Band Shell, 
Daytona Beach 
Florida Division of 
Historical Resources 



Overview of Florida's Pre-history 
& History 

The nations earliest written history relates to events that 
occurred in Florida. Despite this, many perceive Florida 
to be a young state. While many of Florida's present- 
day communities developed in the 20 th century, these 
major phases of rapid growth give Florida a legacy that 
sometimes belies its rich archaeology and history that 
spans many centuries. 

. . . there is a perception that everything in Florida is "new" 
[and] therefore not worth preserving. 

- Comment from survey 

People have lived in Florida more than 12,000 years. 
From the earliest Paleoindian hunters at the end of the 
last ice age to the powerful chiefdoms encountered by 

Spanish explorers, Florida's first inhabitants were Native 
Americans. Adapting to changing climates and widely 
varying environments, Florida Indians spread to every 
part of the peninsula. Along the coasts and the St. 
Johns River, shellfish constituted an important resource. 
Huge mounds of shell still attest to the presence of pre- 
European villages and towns. On the richer soils in the 
Florida panhandle, farming people grew corn, beans and 
squash, and settled villages. About 1,000 years ago, the 
well-known Mississippian chiefdoms began to construct 
large pyramids of earth, some more than 40 feet high, 
organized in regular patterns around a central plaza. The 
Apalachee, the Timucua, the Tocobaga, and the Calusa 
ranked among the largest and most powerful chiefdoms 
encountered by European explorers of Florida s peninsula. 
From initial European contact in the early 1500s, in less 
than 200 years these great native societies were virtually 
extinct, victims of disease, warfare, and slavery. The 
Florida landscape is rich with remains of their mounds, 
canals, plazas, villages, and other sites. These sites are 
often the only source of information on what Florida was 


like thousands of years ago and deserve stewardship and 
protection in the 21 st century. 

Florida was named by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de 
Leon when he first saw this land during Pascua Florida, 
the Feast of Flowers, at Easter 1513. Ponce was followed 
by another Spaniard, Hernando de Soto, who came to 
Florida in search of gold in 1539. He and hundreds of 
soldiers wintered in Tallahassee, departing in March 1540 
to continue his quest in other parts of the Southeast. 
Although there is a substantial written record of de Soto's 
travels, the only known site with any physical evidence of 
his expedition is the De Soto Winter Encampment Site, 
located within blocks of the State Capitol. These remains, 
including a coin and bits of chain mail, were found by 
state archaeologists in 1987. Research at the site continues 
today. Among the members of de Soto's contingent were 
three Roman Catholic priests, and it is believed that they 
must have conducted a Christmas Mass in 1539, the first 
such celebration in what is now the United States. 

De Soto's efforts to find gold in Florida were unsuccessful, 
but it was another Spaniard, Pedro Menendez de Aviles, 
who established St. Augustine in the land of the 
native Timucuan Indian people in 1565, in response 
to the French settlement of Fort Caroline (located in 
present-day Jacksonville). St. Augustine is the oldest 
continuously occupied city in the United States. To the 
west, Pensacola was Florida's only other major Spanish 
settlement. The Spanish initially attempted to colonize 
their newfound land by establishing missions among 
the native peoples. Mission San Luis de Apalachee, at 
present-day Tallahassee, was the western headquarters 
for a chain of missions that spread west from Mission 
Nombre de Dios in St. Augustine. Due to its location 
next to the strongest Spanish fortification in North 
America, the Mission Nombre de Dios was the first 
and last mission in Florida. 


Florida became a United 

States Territory in 1821. 

In 1824, Tallahassee 

was established as the 

territorial capital, midway 

between St. Augustine peAX&ptl&rb iJkdJb 

and Pensacola, which jj . 

had been the capitals in 

East and West Florida. fifStAldd C& n£u^ 

Today's Tallahassee stands r ll ft 

on the site of what once LorUtf 6fi£A£f<M& 

was Anhaica, the capital ^ ^^j^ 

of the native Apalachee 

Indian people. Settlers p\£MAAMnfy. 

were attracted to the rich ~ P 

— Comment rrom survey 
agricultural lands around 

Tallahassee. The land 

was especially suitable 

for growing cotton, and a 

prosperous slave-labor plantation economy developed in 

the area. Settlement in Florida brought conflicts with the 

Seminoles who had come to Florida from Georgia and 

Alabama in the late 18 th century. The Second Seminole 

War (1838-1842), according to historian John Mahon, was 

the costliest "Indian War" in American history. The wars 

resulted in Indian removal, furthered settlement of the 

Southeast, and established the reputations of important 

military and political leaders. Some Seminole War forts 

developed into communities such as Fort Myers and Fort 

Lauderdale, and roads built by the military on old Indian 

trails brought more settlers to the land. 

On March 3, 1845, Florida entered the Union as a 
slave state. Floridians were in the Union only 16 years 
before they voted to secede and join the Confederacy on 
January 10, 1861. Approximately 5,000 Floridians died 
in the Civil War. The state furnished salt, beef, and other 
foodstuffs to Confederate forces. 

Over the next two-and-a-half centuries, Florida 

was an arena of colonial rivalry between the French, 

Spanish, British, and Americans. There was a brief 

British Period (1763-1783) after the Spanish 

lost the French and Indian War. The British 

administratively divided Florida into East and 

West Florida. These two colonies did not join 

the other 13 British colonies in the American 

Revolution and were returned to Spanish control 

after the war. 

Recovery after the Civil War was slow as Florida's 
population, including some 61,000 freed slaves, adjusted 
during Reconstruction. Some early tourists came to hunt 
and fish or to enjoy Florida's natural springs, but without a 
well-developed road system, most settlement was limited 
to coastal and river areas. By the turn of the century, 
railroads opened the interior and southern reaches of the 
state. Agriculture, including citrus; lumber and naval 
stores; and a fledgling tourist industry became mainstays 
in Florida's economy. Nevertheless, Florida remained 
sparsely populated until the 1920s. The Florida Land 


Boom of the 1920s brought rapid growth until its collapse 
in 1926 ushered Florida into economic depression prior to 
the Great Depression. 

During World War II, military bases were established 
across the state, taking advantage of Florida's temperate 
climate for the training of troops and an innovative 
airborne military force. After the war, former military 
families returned to Florida, beginning a period of growth 
that, though slowed, continues today. 

During the decades following World War II, two of the 
most pressing issues facing the country were the Cold War 
and the Civil Rights Movement, and Florida served as a 
stage for events affecting both. Starting in 1957, Florida's 
Cape Canaveral became the major launching site for 
manned space flights, intercontinental ballistic missiles 
(ICBMs), and satellites as the United States entered the 
space race. On July 20, 1969, the world saw live television 
coverage of the first landing of men on the moon, a feat that 
began at Cape Canaveral with the launching of Apollo XL 

Florida also served as the launching point for the ill- 
fated Bay of Pigs Invasion in 1961, and as the airbase for 
reconnaissance planes that first photographed nuclear 
missile silos in Cuba that nearly started a war between 
the United States and Russia. Following the Communist 
takeover of Cuba, hundreds of thousands of refugees under 
the auspices of federal programs such as Operation Pedro 
Pan (Peter Pan) came to Miami, followed later by other 
refugees during the Mariel Boatlift in 1980. While there is 
a centuries-old Caribbean presence in Florida, the dramatic 
influx of Caribbean and other Latin American immigrants 
during the last 40 years has had the most direct impact on 
the state's modern history. 

The Civil Rights Movement also impacted the state. 
Two of the most notable Civil Rights events that 
occurred in Florida were the visit by the Rev. Dr. 
Martin Luther King, Jr. to the city of St. Augustine 
in 1964, and the Tallahassee Bus Boycott in 1957. 
With its many miles of segregated beaches, Florida 
was also the site of "wade-in" demonstrations, such as 
the wade-ins that occurred in Fort Lauderdale and St. 

Florida has a rich and fascinating past. It was a gateway 
to the New World and is now a threshold to space. Its 
cultural heritage embodies the presence and activities of 
people for more than 12,000 years. In the 21 st century, 
Florida's heritage is reflected in historic buildings and 
structures, prehistoric and historic archaeological sites 
and artifacts, and the folk traditions and crafts of the state's 
diverse citizenry. All of these resources comprise Florida's 
cultural and historical heritage and provide continuity 
with the past. They create jobs, improve housing, enhance 
a quality of life, and, along with the state's unique natural 
resources, annually attract millions of visitors. 

A growing appreciation of cultural and historical resources, 
supported by the enactment of new laws and ordinances, 
encourages preservation. Despite that trend, each year 
irreplaceable buildings are bulldozed, archaeological sites 
destroyed, and cultural traditions forgotten. Numerous 
possibilities exist for individuals and institutions to 
preserve Florida's heritage. "Preserving Florida's 
Heritage: More than Orange Marmalade, 2012-2016" 
demonstrates the active preservation program in place 
in our state. We encourage you to become a partner in 
historic preservation. Only together can we continue to 
preserve Florida's past for the future. 



Castillo de San Luis, Tallahassee, 
Florida Division of Historical Resources 


Planning in Florida, a Public Policy 

The highest-level planning document in Florida state 
government is the Statewide Comprehensive Plan, (See 
Chapter 187, Florida Statutes). One of the major features 
of the statewide historic preservation plan is that it ties 
in with the larger Comprehensive Plan. Mechanisms 
for preservation contained in that broad plan provide the 
framework for Historic Preservation in Florida - More Than 
Orange Marmalade, 2012-2016. 

Florida uses a legislatively mandated planning and 
budgeting process that is implemented at the state, 
regional and local levels. There are 11 Regional Planning 
Councils (RPCs) that adopt, implement, and regularly 
revise strategic regional policy plans, pursuant to Section 
186.507, Florida Statutes. State agencies and RPCs 
endeavor to coordinate their respective plans, all of which 
must be consistent with the State Comprehensive Plan. 

Florida Division of Historical Resources 

Finally, local governments must have comprehensive 
plans in place, pursuant to Chapter 163, Part II, Florida 
Statutes. Optional historic preservation elements may be 
included in these plans. Local plans must be consistent 
with the plans of the Regional Planning Councils and the 
State Comprehensive Plan. 

The State Comprehensive Plan (Section 187.201, 
Florida Statutes) includes goals that directly relate to 
historic preservation. For URBAN DOWNTOWN 
REVITALIZATION, the goal is: 

• In recognition of the importance of Florida's vital 
urban centers and the need to develop and redevelop 
downtowns to the state's ability to use existing 
infrastructure and to accommodate growth in an orderly, 
efficient, and environmentally acceptable manner, 
Florida shall encourage the centralization of commercial, 
governmental, retail, residential, and cultural activities 
within downtown areas. 



• Many of the objectives under this goal utilize the concepts 
embodied in the Florida Main Street Program. 


•. . . Florida shall increase access to its historical and cul- 
tural resources and programs and encourage the develop- 
ment of cultural programs of national excellence. 

• Objectives related to HISTORIC PRESERVATION 

under this goal include: 

• Promote and provide access throughout the state to 
performing arts, visual arts, and historic preservation and 
appreciation programs at a level commensurate with the 
state's economic development; 

• Ensure the identification, evaluation, and protection of 
archaeological folk heritage and historic resources proper- 
ties of the state's diverse ethnic population; 

• Stimulate increased private sector participation and 
support for historical and cultural programs; 

• Encourage the rehabilitation and sensitive, adaptive 
use of historic properties through technical assistance 
and economic incentive programs; and 

• Ensure that historic resources are taken into consid- 
eration in planning of all capital programs and projects 
at all levels of government and that such programs 
and projects are carried out in a manner which recog- 
nizes the preservation of historic resources. 

These goals and objectives are supported by state 
historic preservation law, the 1967 Florida Archives 
and History Act (See Chapter 267, Florida Stat- 
utes). This law directs the Division of Historical 
Resources to cooperate with state and federal agen- 
cies, local governments, and private organizations 
and individuals to direct and conduct a compre- 
hensive statewide survey of historic resources, to 
maintain an inventory of such resources, and to 
develop a statewide historic preservation plan. 

It should be noted that all plans only set direc- 
tions. Plan policies may be implemented only 
to the extent that financial resources are pro- 
vided through legislative appropriation, grants, 

or funding from other public or private entities. Plans do 
not create regulatory authority or authorize the adoption 
of agency rules, criteria, or standards not otherwise autho- 
rized by law. 

On June 2, 2011, the state of Florida passed the 
Community Planning Act, which greatly lessened the state's 
role in land use, giving more control of growth manage- 
ment decisions to local governments. Based on the premise 
that most local governments have plans that comply with 
state law and have the ability to maintain those plans with 
reduced state oversight, the legislation addresses many 
factors that have created difficulties for development proj- 
ects. Among the law's new provisions are: 

• The removal of the requirement to establish that there is 
a "need" for additional land to accommodate growth before 
approving land use amendments. 

• Repeal of state-mandated "concurrency" for transporta- 
tion, public school facilities and parks and recreation. Con- 
currency is a type of adequate public facilities requirement. 
This change allows local governments to choose whether 
to retain these concurrency requirements. 

• Revised requirements for calculating and applying trans- 
portation proportionate share mitigation, to ensure that 
development is not required to pay for existing deficien- 
cies or more than their fair share of needed improvements. 

• Repeal of the requirement that local plans be "financially 
feasible." Many plan amendments have been challenged 
for not demonstrating the financial feasibility of funding 
infrastructure needed to support proposed growth. 

• Changes in Rural Land Stewardship Area (RLSA) and 
Sector Planning programs, which are optional planning 
processes for very large scale projects. 

• Changes to the Development of Regional Impact (DRI) 
process, which involves state and regional review of large 
projects. The changes are likely to reduce the number of 
projects subject to the DRI process. 

• Removal of the twice-per-year limitation for processing 
most types of plan amendments. 

• Changes to allow greater use of the small-scale amendment 
process, which does not entail state and regional review. 



These new provisions will diminish the amount of state 
review required for projects, including state projects that 
may impact Florida's historical and cultural resources. It is, 
therefore, imperative that the case for the values of historic 
preservation be mutually supported by Florida historic 
preservationists and clearly presented to the public, officials 
and lawmakers. 

Chapter 380 of the Florida Statutes establishes land and 
water management policies to guide and coordinate local 
decisions relating to growth and development, including 
designation of "Areas of Critical State Concern" for 
which principles guiding development should be adopted. 
Pursuant to Section 380.05(2)(b), Florida Statutes, areas 

"containing, or having a significant impact upon, 
historical or archaeological resources, sites, or 
statutorily defined historical or archaeological 
districts, the private or public development of 
which would cause substantial deterioration or 
complete loss of such resources, sites, or districts" 
are eligible for such a designation. The specific 
criteria to be considered in designating areas under 
this section — association with events or people 
significant to state or regional history; containing 
structures that are architecturally significant; or 
potential to yield information important to the 
history or prehistory of the region or state — are 
consistent with National Register criteria for listing, 



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African Cemetery at Higgs Beach, Key West 
Florida Division of Historical Resources 



Preservation Partners 

Since completion of the previous plan for 2006-2010, 
several events of international economic significance 
have occurred: 

• The continuing impacts of the September 11, 2001 
attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon 
on travel, tourism and on the international economy 

• Since 2008, the economic meltdown of world 
banking and financial markets, impacting lending, 
housing, and construction 

• The resultant worldwide recession which 
continues into 2012 

• The economic struggles of state and local 
governments as both sales and property tax 
revenues fall 

• Negative unemployment trends. (Source: 
Economic Impacts of Historic Preservation in 
Florida -Update, 2010). 

The above factors are the context out of which the present 
plan has been developed. An awareness of these factors is 
important in considering the 2012-2016 Comprehensive 

The 2006-2010 plan was developed in 2005, in the midst 
of a Florida land boom. Even with the collapse of that 
boom, the issues remain much the same: development; the 
need for better historic preservation education for school 
children, policy makers, and homeowners; and better 
communication of the benefits of historic preservation to 
legislators and local officials. 

The difference now is that non-profits that support 
historic preservation have been diminished, for many 
of the state programs that support the preservation 
of our historical and cultural resources are tied to the 
economy. The annual legislative appropriations for the 
state's historic preservation grant funding have been 
considerably decreased. A program that once enjoyed over 
$14 million a year in funding has received less than $1 
million a year in the last several years. Due to other budget 
cutbacks, the Florida Department of State's Division of 
Historical Resources has closed its three regional offices 
and discontinued publication of a bi-monthly newsletter 
and an award-winning quarterly magazine, Florida History 



& the Arts. Many historic preservation jobs in local 
governments throughout the state have been eliminated, 
and many of the non-profit organizations that support 
historic properties and preservation advocacy throughout 
the state are finding it difficult to raise or retain their 
financial support. As a result, preservationists throughout 
the state are recognizing the importance of identifying and 
cultivating other sources of financial, political and popular 
support at the local as well as state level. 

. . . This award winning publication [Florida History & the 
Arts] is no longer being produced by the Division of Historical 
Resources, naturally, due to budget cuts. Yet I believe the 
product, and benefits it provided were more than worth 
the minimal costs that it required. The photographs were 
beautiful, the narratives informing, and it showcased historic 
sites, treasures, main streets and folk traditions around the 
state. It was a smart magazine for both residents and visitors 
alike . . . Bring back the mag!! -Comment from Survey 

But with challenges come opportunities, and Florida's 
preservation-minded individuals and organizations have 
continued to carry on their efforts to preserve Florida's 

prehistoric, historic, and cultural heritage in spite of the 

Preservation should always be public and privately shared. 
True stewards of the lands begin with both parties. 
-Comment from Survey 

The preservation of Florida's historical and cultural 
resources can only be achieved through cooperation 
between federal, state, and local governments, and 
private individuals and organizations. This statewide 
comprehensive plan provides a common vision for the 
organizations and agencies that administer or implement 
historic preservation programs in Florida. 

Federal Government 

Federal laws have fostered the growth of effective state 
historic preservation programs and encouraged private 
sectorpreservation activities. Federal involvement in historic 
preservation in Florida dates back to 1916, when money 
was appropriated for the restoration of Fort Matanzas and 



the Castillo de San Marcos in St. Augustine (National 
Park Service, 
period.htm; "Fort Matanzas National Monument: The 
American Period (1821-Present),"; National Park Service; 
"Fort Matanzas National Monument: the Restoration 
of Fort Matanzas,"). It was the first time federal money 
was ever used for the stated purpose of preserving a 
historic resource. Both resources were declared National 
Monuments in 1924 and have been under the management 
of the National Park Service since 1933. 

Many state historic 
preservation programs 
began as a means of 
implementing federal 

mandates, but have 
since acquired their 
own momentum. More 
recently, these initiatives 
in Florida have led to 

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preservation, protection 
historical properties and 

preservation programs 
at the local government 
and even neighborhood 
level. Federal preservation 
programs support the 
responsible management 
of state properties 
and provide technical 
assistance to public and 
private efforts in the 

and promotion of the state's 

archaeological sites. 

The Kennedy Space Center has been the site of some of 
the most significant achievements of the 20th century. 
As the manager of this site, NASA is the custodian of an 
area of major international historical importance. The site 
has been used for rocket testing since 1950 and NASA 
has been conducting manned and unmanned space flights 
from this location since its founding in 1958. Originally 
known as Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, it was listed 
as a National Historic Landmark (NHL) in 1984. The 
official NHL consists of six launch pads, a mobile service 
tower, and the original Mission Control Room. 

Seminole Tribal Historic Preservation 
Office (THPO) 

Approximately 3,100 members of the Seminole Tribe of 
Florida live in South Florida on seven reservations: Big 
Cypress, Brighton, Coconut Creek, Fort Pierce, Hollywood, 
Immokalee, and Tampa, encompassing approximately 
90,000 acres of land (Seminole Geography: Using 
GIS as a tool for Tribal Historic Preservation Offices, 
Presentation at 2008 ESRI International User Conference, 
San Diego, California [PDF]) 

A major boon to the preservation of Florida's historical 
resources was the establishment of the Seminole Tribal 
Historic Preservation Office in November 2006, and that 
Office's first listing of a property in the National Register 
of Historic Places, The Red Barn, in 2008. Since then, the 
THPO has recorded over 300 properties in its inventory, 
and has 100 listings in its Tribal Register. (Paul Backhouse, 
DTHPO, telephone communication, August 8, 2011). 

As a major landholder in Florida, the 

federal government manages many of 

the state's historic and archaeological 

resources. Some federal agencies involved 

include the Department of the Interior 

(National Park Service), which oversees 

the national historic preservation program 

and manages 11 National Park units 

in Florida; the National Aeronautics 

and Space Administration (NASA); 

the Department of Agriculture (U.S. 

Forest Service); the Federal Highway 

Administration; the Department 

of Defense, and the Department of 

Homeland Security (specifically the 

U.S. Coast Guard). 

Seminole Patchwork 
Florida Division of Historical Resources 



State Government 

Since 1967, when Florida s historic 

preservation program formally began 

with the passage of the Florida 

Archives and History Act (Chapter 

267, Florida Statutes), the Florida 

Department of State has been home 

to the state government's historic 

preservation programs. The Office of 

Cultural, Historical and Information 

Programs (OCHIP) is responsible 

for promoting the historical, 

archaeological, museum, arts, and 

folk culture resources in Florida. 

Within OCHIP, the Director of the 

Division of Historical Resources 

(DHR) serves as Florida's State 

Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO), acting as the 

liaison with the national historic preservation program 

conducted by the National Park Service. The Division 

is headquartered in Tallahassee, the state capital. There 

are two bureaus within the Division, the Bureau of 

Historic Preservation and the Bureau of Archaeological 

Research (BAR). 

Bureau of Historic Preservation 

From the ancient City of St. Augustine to the Art Deco 
district on Miami's South Beach, the Bureau of Historic 
Preservation (BHP) conducts historic preservation 
programs to identify, evaluate, preserve, and interpret the 
historic and cultural resources of the state. BHP carries 
out the State Historic Preservation Office responsibilities 
for the state. 

East Stuart Main Street, Stuart 
Florida Division of Historical Resources 

The Compliance and Review (CR) staff evaluates 
and comments on the impact of federal, state, and 
some local projects on the state's historical resources 
to facilitate compliance with federal and state 
preservation laws. The Florida Master Site File 
maintains the federally mandated inventory of Florida's 
historic resources. It contains more than 187,000 
entries. Over the last five years (since 2006-2007), the 
Compliance and Review Section has reviewed 17,250 
federal projects; 28,962 state projects; 1,181 local 
projects; and 4,567 elements in local comprehensive 

The Survey and Registration staff coordinates the 
National Park Service's National Register of Historic 
Places Program for Florida. In October 2011, Florida had 
over 1,600 listings encompassing over 48,000 resources, in 
the National Register. 

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Florida Division of Historical Resources 


January 2012 




Alachua - 54 
Baker -4 
Bay - 10 
Bradford -3 
Brevard - 41 
Broward - 31 
Calhoun - 3 
Charlotte - 17 
Citrus - 10 
Clay - 23 
Collier - 19 
Columbia - 10 
DeSoto - 2 

Dixie -2 

Duval - 86 

Escambia - 34 
Flagler - 8 

Franklin - 10 
Gadsden - 16 
Gilchrist - 
Glades - 3 
Gulf- 3 
Hamilton - 5 
Hardee - 2 
Hendry - 12 
Hernando - 7 
Highlands - 14 
Hillsborough - 89 
Holmes - 1 
Indian River - 26 
Jackson - 9 
Jefferson - 21 
Lafayette - 
Lake - 28 

Lee - 52 
Leon - 59 
Levy - 3 
Liberty - 3 
Madison - 7 
Manatee - 29 
Marion - 29 
Martin - 13 
Miami-Dade - 173 
Monroe - 55 
Nassau - 14 
Okaloosa - 8 
Okeechobee - 2 
Orange - 50 
Osceola - 7 
Palm Beach - 73 
Pasco - 10 

Pinellas - 60 
Polk - 68 
Putnam - 16 
Santa Rosa - 16 
Sarasota - 90 
Seminole - 16 
Saint Johns - 43 
Saint Lucie - 16 
Sumter - 2 
Suwannee - 7 
Taylor - 2 
Union - 4 
Volusia - 102 
Wakulla - 7 
Walton - 5 
Washington - 4 

Among Florida's over 1,600 National Register listings, 43 are designated National Historic Landmarks, the highest 
designation for historic properties in the nation. The Survey and Registration Section also contains the Certified 
Local Government and Florida Historical Marker programs. 

DeBary Hall, DeBary 
Florida Division of Historical Resources 

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January 2012 




The Florida Historical Marker Program recognizes 
persons, events, and resources significant in Florida 
architecture, archaeology, history, and traditional Florida 
cultures by erecting historical markers at sites around 
the state. Historical markers increase public awareness of 
Florida's rich cultural heritage, increase the enjoyment of 
visiting historic sites by residents and tourists, and are a 
source of pride to the local community. The marker program 
recognizes sites of local significance (Florida Heritage 
Sites), and of state and national significance (Florida 
Heritage Landmarks). Applications for historical markers 
are reviewed by the Division of Historical Resources, 
assisted by the State Historical Marker Council. Matching 
grant funds are available to governmental agencies and 
nonprofit organizations to help defray the cost of historical 
markers. Since its inception in 1960, there have been over 
700 state historical markers erected throughout the state. 

The Singing Tower, Bok Tower & Gardens, Lake Wales 
Florida Division of Historical Resources 

1. Fort Barrancas Historical District 

2. Pensacola Naval Air Station Historic District 

3. Plaza Ferdinand VII 

4. Fort Walton Mound 

5. Fort Gadsden Historic Memorial 

6. Governor Stone Schooner 

7. San Luis de Apalache Mission 

8. Fort San Marcos de Apalache 

9. Maple Leaf Shipwreck Site 

10. Fort Mose Site, Second 

11. St. Augustine Town Plan Historic District 

12. Gonzalez- Alvarez House (Oldest House) 

13. Cathedral of St. Augustine 

14. Llambias House 

15. Hotel Ponce De Leon 

16. Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings House and Farm Yard 

17. Fort King Site 

18. Mary McLeod Bethune Home 

19. Ponce De Leon Inlet Light Station 

20. Crystal River Indian Mounds 

21. Dade Battlefield Historic Memorial 

22. Windover Archaeological Site 

23. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station 

24. Safety Harbor Site 

25. Tampa Bay Hotel 

26. Ybor City Historic District 

27. El Centro Espanol de Tampa 

28. Florida Southern College Architectural District 

29. Bok Mountain Lake Sanctuary and Singing Tower 

30. Pelican Island National Wildlife Refuge 

31. Zora Neale Hurston House 

32. Okeechobee Battlefield 

33. Henry Morrison Flagler House; Whitehall 

34. Mar-A-Lago 

35. Miami Circle at Brickell Point 

36. Vizcaya (James Deering Estate) 

37. Freedom Tower 

38. Miami-Biltmore Hotel 

39. U.S. Car No. 1 

40. Mud Lake Canal 

41. Fort Zachary Taylor 

42. Ernest Hemingway House 

43. USCGC Ingham 






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Recognizing the importance of 1. 

support and participation in historic 2. 

preservation policy and programs at 3. 

the community level, the Certified 4. 

Local Government (CLG) programs 5. 

throughout the state benefit from 6. 

efforts by the DHR to encourage 7. 

and support the participation of 8. 

Florida municipalities in this federal 9. 

program. 10. 


In June 2010, a series of three 12. 

Certified Local Government (CLG) 13. 

workshops provided the opportunity 14. 

for more interaction and discussion 15. 

between preservationists throughout 16. 

the state. Over 180 participants 17. 

attended the sessions in Tallahassee, 18. 

DeLand, and Delray Beach. 19. 

Representatives from 34 Florida 20. 

CLGs attended the training, as 21. 

well as representatives from 18 22. 

non-CLGs interested in joining 23. 

the CLG program. Each training 24. 

session was conducted by speakers 25. 

provided by the National Alliance 26. 

of Preservation Commissions 27. 

using the organizations 28. 

popular CAMP (Commission 29. 

Assistance and Mentoring 30. 

Program) format, which 31. 
included a refresher course 
on local historic preservation 
principles, and a discussion of 
design review and legal issues 
facing historic preservation 
commission members and 
staff. The CLG program has 
grown from 52 participating 
communities in 2005, to 60 
in 2011, and has established 
an email list to provide an 
online forum for CLG 
programs to communicate 
with each other. 

City of Fort Walton Beach 

City of Quincy 

City of Tallahassee/Leon County 

City of Fernandina Beach 

City of Jacksonville 

Clay County 

City of St. Augustine 

City of Newberry 

City of Gainesville 

Town of Micanopy 

City of Ocala 

Town of Welaka 

City of Daytona Beach 

City of New Smyrna Beach 

Volusia County 

City of Deland 

City of Sanford 

City of Mount Dora 

City of Eustis 

City of Leesburg 

Town of Eatonville 

City of Orlando 

Town of Windermere 

City of Kissimmee 

City of Auburndale 

City of Lakeland 

City of Plant City 

Hillsborough County 

City of Tampa 

City of Tarpon Springs 

City of St. Pete Beach 

32. City of Gulfport 

33. City of St. Petersburg 

34. City of Sarasota 

35. Sarasota County 

36. Highlands County 

37. City of Melbourne 

38. City of Fort Pierce 

39. City of Fort Meyers 

40. Lee County 

41. City of Bonita Springs 

42. Collier County 

43. Palm Beach County 

44. Town of Jupiter 

45. Town of Lake Park 

46. City of West Palm Beach 

47. City of Lake Worth 

48. City of Boynton Beach 

49. City of Delray Beach 

50. Town of Palm Beach 

51. City of Pompano Beach 

52. City of Fort Lauderdale 

53. City of Hollywood 

54. City of Miami Beach 

55. City of Miami 

56. City of Coral Gables 

57. City of Homestead 

58. Miami-Dade County 

59. Monroe County 

60. Village of Islamorada 

61. City of Key West 



The Architectural Preservation Services (APS) Section 

provides technical assistance in preserving buildings 
and makes recommendations for the Federal Historic 
Preservation Tax Incentive Program, which encourages 
property owners and developers to rehabilitate historic 
buildings rather than tear them down. Over the past five 
years, 43 projects were completed and approved for income 
tax credit by the NPS in the state of Florida. Expenses 
certified under the federal income tax credit totaled 

Number of Certified Projects 
and Expenses, 2007-2011 


* of Certified 




















The numbers for 2010 and 2011 clearly demonstrate the 
impact of the economic downturn. 

The Florida Main Street Program, also in the APS 
Section, acts as a catalyst for efforts to preserve, revitalize, 
and sustain Florida's commercial districts. Part of a national 
movement, the program was developed by the National 
Trust for Historic Preservation in 1980 and became a 
major part of historic preservation in Florida in 1985. The 
Florida Main Street Program supports local action that 
builds economic vitality, quality of life, and community 
pride centered in a city's traditional commercial core. 
Florida's Main Street program concentrates on cities with 
populations of between 5,000 and 50,000 people with 
traditional historic downtowns, although the program 
has been tailored to smaller communities and to historic 
commercial areas of larger cities. Designated Florida 
Main Street cities receive up to three years of specialized 
technical assistance from the Bureau of Historic 
Preservation in each area of the Main Street approach to 
help make many small, positive improvements downtown. 
The Bureau offers manager training, consultant team visits, 
design and other historic preservation assistance, and 

networking opportunities with other cities in 
the Florida Main Street network. Florida Main 
Street cities are selected through an annual 
competitive application process. 

The Main Street Program is most important 
[success] in my view, in the Economic Restructuring. 
It assists in improving and recognizing to make 
stronger the businesses that were here and are 
hometown, the ones that helped to make the towns 
strong to start with. Allowing the original to strive 
and not be drowned by superficial money making 
dealers that have no interest in the people or families 
trying to succeed. 

-Comment from Survey 

The Florida Main Street Program assists local 
private -public partnerships by providing technical 
and financial assistance and training in the 
comprehensive Main Street Approach: Organization, 
Promotion, Economic Restructuring, and Design. 
Since 1985, over 90 cities have been designated Florida 
Main Street Communities. Florida Main Street hosts 
statewide conferences and facilitates networking 
among those interested in downtown preservation and 
redevelopment. The Main Street Program is one of the 
most efficient programs in creating jobs and promoting 
local economies, benefits that are documented in regular 
reports from Main Street managers and entered into a 
database. Since 2007, the Florida Main Street Program 
has generated 21,530 jobs, over 729,000 total volunteer 
hours, and over $2.2 billion in total value of private and 
public revitalization projects. 

Florida Main Street Program has revitalized a lot of 
downtowns which have added to economic activities and 
tourism in small towns. 

-Comment from Survey 

The Architectural Preservation Services staff also 
administers a state grant program for the rehabilitation, 
restoration, and acquisition of historic buildings, the survey 
of historical resources, the excavation of archaeological 
sites, and the funding of preservation education and 
museum exhibit programs. In recent years, historic 
preservation activity has expanded substantially to meet 
the increasing public demand for preservation projects. 
This has been accomplished in large measure through the 
state's Special Category Grants Program and the federal 
Historic Preservation Trust Fund Matching Grants 



tt * 

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local preservation initiatives. Although grant funding 
from the state legislature has diminished in recent years, 
important projects have been completed, such as a survey 
of Rosenwald Schools in Florida, showing that only 26 of 
those buildings remain in the state. 

I can think of no other state funded program which offers 
exponentially higher returns on the States investment 
than the Special Category grant and small matching grant 

-Comment from Survey 

The Rural Economic Development Initiative (REDI) 

program, housed in the Florida Department of Economic 
Opportunity, was established in 1999 to better serve 
Florida's rural communities by providing a more focused 
and coordinated effort among state and regional agencies 
that provide programs and services for rural areas. REDI 
coordinates the efforts of state and regional agencies 
working to assist qualified communities (for qualifications, 
see Section 288.0656, Florida Statutes). Under the 
initiative, the Florida Department of State, Division of 
Historical Resources waives the requirement for a match 
for Small Matching Historic Preservation grants (up to 
$50,000) submitted by REDI counties or communities, 
and not-for-profit agencies within those communities. 
For Special Category Grants (large Fixed Capital Outlay 
grants up to $350,000), the match is reduced to 10% of 

the requested grant amount for projects within REDI 
counties or communities. 

Since 2002, 78 REDI communities have received over 
$2.8 million in state preservation grant funds. Among 
the projects undertaken with the assistance of the 
REDI program was the 2005 rehabilitation of the ca. 
1900 Muscogee Nation School House in rural Walton 
County. A $50,000 grant provided for the preservation of 
the building, which is the only remaining Indian frame 
school in Florida. Another project undertaken with the 
assistance of a REDI grant is a citywide archaeological 
GIS predictive model for Fernandina Beach. The goal 
of this project is to help identify areas within the city 
limits of potential archaeological importance. The City of 
Fernandina Beach received a $12,500 grant through the 
state for this project in 2012. 

The Outreach Programs staff coordinates production, 
marketing,and distribution of DHR publications, including 
Florida Heritage Trails and the statewide comprehensive 
historic preservation plan. Recent publications produced 
by the Division of Historical Resources include the 
Florida Native American Heritage Trail (2007), Florida 
Spanish Colonial Heritage Trail (2010) and Florida Civil 
War Heritage Trail (2011). 



The Outreach Programs staff also administers the Florida 
Folklife Program and the Great Floridians Program. 

The Florida Folklife Program (FFP) coordinates a wide 
range of activities and projects designed to increase the 
awareness of citizens and visitors about Florida's traditional 
cultures. The Folklife Program documents Florida's 
traditional culture through annual surveys on a wide range 
of topics. The Folklife Apprenticeship Program and the 
Florida Folk Heritage Awards celebrate and preserve the 
achievements of the state's foremost tradition bearers. 

Florida's folklife, or contemporary traditional culture, 

reflects both the state's history and its constantly changing 

populace. Traditional patterns of skills used to make 

Puerto Rican lace, embroider Torah covers, weave white 

oak baskets, build a Seminole chickee, and create diving 

helmets, to name just a few examples, remain vibrant 

components of the state's material folk culture. The 

storehouse of everyday knowledge necessary to operate a 

shrimp boat, raise tropical fruits and vegetables, braid a 

cow whip, or build an airboat demonstrates that folklife 

remains an important resource in the occupational culture 

of Floridians. The vast array of music and dance traditions 

— from bluegrass and African American gospel to 

Vietnamese opera, Mexican norteno music, Irish fiddle, 

Cuban comparsa, and Hawaiian hula - demonstrate that 

folklife is vital to connecting the state's communities 

through creative expression. 

Between 2006 and 2010, the Florida Folklife Program 
underwent a period of change. The program produced 

Left: Afro-Cuban bata drummer & drum maker, 

Luis Ezequiel Torres, HISTORYMIAMI 

Right: Greek Diving Helmet maker, Nick Toth, 

Tarpon Springs, Florida Division of Historical Resources 

and distributed a very successful exhibit on Florida Cattle 
Ranching traditions, which traveled to four in-state 
museum venues, and was featured at the 2010 National 
Cowboy Poetry Gathering at the Western Folklife Center 
in Elko, Nevada. It was seen by over 110,800 visitors. 
During this period, the Department of State's position 
of State Folklorist was lost to budget cuts in the 2009 
legislative session, but due to statutory requirements, the 
position was restored during the 2010 legislative session. 
The position was advertised in the summer of 2010, and 
reinstated in November 2010. 

Although the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill did not 
affect Florida's coastal heritage resources as dramatically 
as feared, people along the Gulf Coast continue to feel 
the impact of the disaster in complicated, unexpected 
ways. The 2010-2011 annual survey conducted by 
the FFP focused on the Panhandle to document the 
folkways in this region. With resources in other Gulf 
Coast states deemed unsafe for consumption, some areas 
were overfished in response to increased demand. The 
economic impact was felt by people living along the Gulf 
Coast, especially individuals working in the commercial 
seafood and tourism industries. Public perception played 
as large a role as measurable environmental impacts. Most 
experienced a decrease in income, and yet the incomes 
of some individuals employed in traditional maritime 
occupations increased for the first time since the onset 
of the recession. Survey results were showcased by 38 
traditional artists and demonstrators over a three-day 
period in the Folklife Area at the Florida Folklife Festival, 
an annual event coordinated by Florida State Parks and 
held at Stephen Foster Folk Culture Center State Park. 

Bureau of Archaeological Research 

The state's archaeology program is the 
responsibility of the Division of Historical 
Resources' Bureau of Archaeological 

Research (BAR). State archaeologists 
provide leadership in the identification, 
preservation, and interpretation of 
archaeological sites, primarily on state- 
owned lands. They also provide technical 
assistance to private consultants, law 
enforcement personnel, and government 
planners, including training courses that 
focus on management of public sites and law 



The Bureau's Underwater Archaeology Program leads 
management of the state's historic shipwreck sites and 
prehistoric land sites now underwater due to sea level 
rise. Some of these are among the oldest human- 
occupied sites in North America. BAR's underwater 
archaeologists work with local divers and communities 
to develop Underwater Archaeological Preserves around 
the state that protect and interpret shipwreck sites for 
the public. There are currently 11 preserves, with others 
under consideration. In June 2012, the Bureau launched 
the Florida Panhandle Shipwreck Trail, highlighting 
twelve shipwrecks in the Florida Panhandle between 
Pensacola, Destin, Panama City Beach and Port St. Joe, 
and encouraging heritage tourism. 

The Bureau of Archaeological Research operates a 
Conservation Laboratory, which specializes in the 
cleaning and conservation of metal and wooden artifacts, 
including very large objects like dugout canoes, cannons, 
and anchors. The Bureau's collections section manages 
a diverse cross-section of artifacts, primarily from state- 
owned lands, ranging from 12,000 year old spear points and 
ancient pottery vessels, to Civil War artifacts and objects 
from Spanish shipwrecks. Bureau archaeologists survey 
and aid management of sites on state-owned conservation 
lands, and evaluate new properties for acquisition by the 
Florida Forever land acquisition program. BAR manages 
several public archaeological sites, including two National 
Historic Landmarks: Mission San Luis and the Miami 

Circle. Mission San Luis, the seventeenth century 
western capital of Spanish Florida, is now the site 
of professional archaeological research and a living 
history museum, including costumed interpreters and 
reconstructed Spanish and indigenous buildings. The 
Miami Circle was acquired by the State of Florida in 
1999 and is now a passive public greenspace managed by 
HistoryMiami, a local museum. 

In Tallahassee, the National Historic Landmark, Mission 
San Luis, the western headquarters of the 17th and 
18th-century Franciscan chain of missions, now boasts a 
modern visitor center featuring a 125-seat theater, 2-story 
main lobby, two 30-person classrooms, and a boardroom 
that seats 12. An exhibit gallery displays artifacts recovered 
on site. An adjoining banquet hall, warming kitchen, and 
lobby are rented out for special events. Historic buildings 
meticulously recreated based on historic documents and 
archaeological evidence on the 65-acre site include the 
large thatched Franciscan church and Apalachee council 
house, as well as the convento, Spanish residence and 
Castillo, which was completed in 2006. 

Other Florida Department of 
State Programs 

An agency of the Division of Cultural Affairs, Florida 
Department of State, the Museum of Florida History 



(MFH) is the official state history museum, chartered by 
the Legislature in 1967 and opened in 1977. It exists to 
collect, preserve, exhibit, and interpret the material record 
of human culture in Florida, and to promote and encourage, 
throughout the state, knowledge and appreciation of Florida 
history. It is concerned primarily with interpreting events 
and conditions that are unique to Florida's population, but 
also those events in which Floridians are part of larger 
national and global communities. This is accomplished 
through permanent, temporary, and traveling exhibitions; 
educational programming and community outreach; and 
consultation and technical assistance made available to all 
of Florida's historical agencies. Open every day of the year 
except Christmas and Thanksgiving, the Museum offers 
regular tours and on-site programs, outreach programs, 
and a traveling exhibits program (TREX). 

MFH hosts a suite of popular monthly events with 

changing themes that typically relate to a current 

temporary exhibit. The 2nd Saturday Family Program 

provides hands-on activities for children and adults. 3rd 

Thursday is an after-hours social event that offers music, 

catered food, and a lecture. History at High Noon on 

the fourth Tuesday features local experts who discuss 

topics related to Florida history, culture, and arts. For 

twenty-nine years, the Museum has hosted Children's 

Day in January, a day-long, family festival with crafts, 

exhibitors, performers, and demonstrations that draws 

3,000 people. For eighteen years, the Knott House, the 

Museum's satellite house museum, has commemorated 

the announcement of the Emancipation Proclamation 

in Florida in 1865 on its steps with an Emancipation 

Day Celebration. 

Some programs are specifically for students. A major 

annual statewide event, sponsored by the Museum of 

Florida History since the 1988-1989 school year, is 

the Florida History Fair. This event enhances the 

teaching and learning of history at elementary and 

secondary levels. The Florida History Fair engages 

44,450 youth and 1,000 teachers statewide. As 

an affiliate of National History Day, the Florida 

History Fair augments classroom instruction by 

offering students the means and encouragement to 

do original research and presentations in a variety 

of formats. Among the prizes offered each year is 

one for the best presentations related to Florida 

history, sponsored by the Florida Historical 

Society. For college students, MFH offers unpaid 

internships during every academic semester. 

The Florida Memory Project website is hosted by the 
State Library and Archives of Florida. The oldest part 
of the program is the nationally recognized Florida 
Photographic Collection that, since its establishment in 
1952 at Florida State University, has amassed a collection 
of over a million images, and over 6,000 movies and video 
tapes. Over 170,000 of those resources are scanned and 
available on the Collections website. Since 1982, the 
Collection has been housed in the R.A. Gray Building 
in Tallahassee. Also documented in the Florida Memory 
Project collection are videos and audio tapes that capture 
Florida folk heritage, such as podcasts of Sacred Steel, 
Greek Music Traditions in Tarpon Springs, sacred music, 
interviews with folklorists, and recordings from past 
Florida Folk Festivals beginning with the first festival held 
in 1954. 

Advisory Boards and Support 

To enhance public participation and involvement in the 
preservation and protection of the state's historic and 
archaeological sites and properties, the Florida Legislature 
authorizes several advisory bodies to advise and assist the 
Division of Historical Resources: The Florida Folklife 
Council; the Florida Historical Marker Council; an advisory 
council for The Grove, an antebellum house used by two 
Florida governors; and the citizen support organizations, 
Friends of Historic Properties and Museums, Inc., and 
Friends of Mission San Luis, Inc. 

In 2001, the Florida Legislature established the Florida 
Historical Commission (FHC) (Section 267.0612, 
Florida Statutes) to advise and assist the Division of 
Historical Resources in carrying out the programs, duties, 
and responsibilities of the Division. The Commission 
has 11 members; seven members are appointed by the 
Governor in consultation with the Secretary of State, two 
are appointed by the President of the Florida Senate, and 
two are appointed by the Speaker of the Florida House 
of Representatives. 

The commissioners are responsible for reviewing 
and ranking Special Category Historic Preservation 
Grant applications. Five of the members appointed 
by the Governor, representing the disciplines of 
history, architecture, architectural history, prehistoric 
archaeology, and historic archaeology, also meet as 
Florida's National Register Review Board to review and 



make recommendations on proposed nominations to the 
National Register of Historic Places. In addition, the 
Commission exists to receive public input and provide 
advice with regard to policy and preservation needs. 

Other State Agencies 

The Division of Historical Resources is the primary 
agency for directing historic preservation in Florida, 
but the state park system, administered by the Division 
of Recreation and Parks in the Florida Department of 
Environmental Protection (DEP), is the largest steward 
of public historic properties in the state. Florida State 
Parks manages 160 parks, 93 of which contain significant 
historic properties, including more than 300 recorded 
historic structures and over 1,800 known archaeological 
sites. Of the 67 remaining parks, 51 contain identified 
archaeological sites and/or historic structures which have 
yet to be evaluated for significance. The state park system 
provides extensive interpretive/educational opportunities 
on historic properties for Florida residents and out- 
of-state visitors. Florida State Parks participates in the 
federal Land and Water Conservation Fund program to 
make funds available to local recreation and park programs, 

including projects that support historic 
properties. The state park system works closely 
with the National Park Service on historic 
preservation and archaeological projects. Under 
the Florida Historical Resources Act (Chapter 
267, Florida Statutes), the Florida Department 
of State's Division of Historical Resources and 
the Florida Department of Environmental 
Protections Division of Recreation and Parks 
are directed to coordinate, in their respective 
roles, historic preservation activities. Historic 
properties managed and interpreted by Florida 
State Parks range from Paleoindian sites to fort 
structures modified for use during World War II. 
The park system provides first and third person 
interpretation, administers numerous historic house 
and specialty museums, actively manages cultural 
landscapes associated with significant periods of 
history and works to preserve habitats as they existed 
upon the arrival of Columbus in the New World. 

Florida Forever is the state's current blueprint for 
conserving its natural resources. It replaced the highly 
successful Preservation 2000, which was the largest 
program of its kind in the United States. Preservation 
2000 acquired more than 1.78 million acres of land for 
protection. The Florida Forever Act, implemented in 
2000, reinforced Florida's commitment to conserve its 
natural and cultural heritage, provide urban open space, 
and better manage the land acquired by the state. 

Florida Forever is more than an environmental land 
acquisition mechanism. It encompasses a wide range of 

Miami Circle, Before 

Florida Division of Historical Resources 

Miami Circle, After 

Florida Division of Historical Resources 



goals including: environmental restoration; water resource 
development and supply; increased public access; public 
lands management and maintenance; and increased 
protection of land by acquisition of conservation easements. 

In 1998, Florida voters amended the state constitution by 
ratifying a constitutional amendment that re-authorized 
bonds for land acquisition. The 1999 state legislature 
responded with the 10-year $3 billion Florida Forever 
Program to acquire and manage land for conservation. This 
was extended another 10 years in 2008 for a total of $6 
billion. Although the authorization was extended, funding 
has fallen short of the anticipated $300 million per year 
since the 2009-2010 fiscal year, including two years when $0 
was set aside. In 2010-2011, $15 million and $8.3 million is 
anticipated for the 2012-2013 fiscal year. 

The 11 -member Acquisition and Restoration Council 

(ARC) makes recommendations about acquisition, 

management and disposal of state-owned lands. This 

advisory group includes private citizen members with 

backgrounds in scientific disciplines of land, water, or 

environmental sciences as well as wildlife management, 

forestry management, and outdoor recreation, in 

addition to five state agency representatives, including 

the Department of State. 

With the passage of the Florida Forever Act, the State 

of Florida has one of the most aggressive conservation 

and recreation land acquisition programs in the United 

States and the world. Since 1963, Florida has invested 

approximately $7.9 billion to conserve approximately 

3.9 million acres of land for environmental, 

recreational and preservation purposes. This has been 

accomplished with a number of programs, including 

the Environmentally Endangered Lands, Outdoor 

Recreation, Save Our Coasts, Save Our Rivers, 

Conservation and Recreation Lands, Preservation 

2000, and Florida Forever. 

As of 2010, 576 archaeological and historical sites 

in the state of Florida have been conserved through 

the efforts of the Florida Forever program. To 

account for lands critical for acquisition due to 

their historical significance, in 2011 the ARC 

created the Critical Historical Resource (CHR) 

classification raising the visibility of these 

important preservation projects and enabling 

them to compete against each other, rather than 

against the biologically and environmentally 

oriented projects. At the most recent meeting of the ARC, 
six CHRs were identified: the Battle of Wahoo Swamp 
site and the Okeechobee Battlefield site (both important 
Seminole War sites); the Pierce Mound Complex (a group 
of mounds near the salt marsh north of Apalachicola left 
by people who lived there for over a thousand years, and 
one of the most important historical sites in Florida); 
the Pinelands Site Complex (among the rich remains of 
the Calusa and earlier peoples around Charlotte Harbor, 
with large mounds and canals and well-preserved remains 
dating back almost 2,000 years); the Three Chimneys site 
(the remains of a British sugar and rum factory from the 
1700's); and the Windover Archaeology site (an extremely 
significant historic and archaeological property, listed on 
the National Register of Historic Places, designated a 
National Historic Landmark in 1987, and the state's first, 
and currently only, State Archaeological Landmark.) 

The Florida Communities Trust (FCT) is a state land 
acquisition grant program housed within the Florida 
Department of Community Affairs (DCA). The FCT 
Parks and Open Space Grant Program provides funding 
through an annual competitive grant cycle, aiding local 
governments and non-profit environmental organizations 
to acquire community-based parks, open space and 
greenways. These projects further outdoor recreation 
and natural resource protection needs identified in local 
government comprehensive plans. The FCT is an integral 
part of DCAs efforts to assist communities in meeting the 
challenges of growth management, mitigating the effects 
of disasters, and investing in community revitalization, 
while protecting Florida's natural and cultural resources. 
The FCT's projects often make significant contributions to 
the balance of economic growth and resource protection. 

Funding of DCAs Florida Communities Trust Parks 
and Open Space Grant Program comes from the Florida 
Forever Program. The FCT Parks and Open Space Grant 
Program usually receives 21 percent, or $63 million, of the 
total $300 million in Florida Forever proceeds each year 
unless otherwise allocated by the Legislature. The FCT 
is governed by a six-member board. A staff member from 
the Division of Historical Resources reviews grant projects 
for historical resources. The Department s point system 
in ranking projects includes the presence of historical 
resources as one of the many variables used to compute a 
project's overall ranking. 

Continuing its commitment to preserve the State's historic 
past, the FCT awarded more than $45 million in FY 



2008-2009 to acquire properties that included historical or 
archaeological resources. The FCT has helped save dozens 
of Florida sites having historical significance at the local, 
state, and national levels. These sites include: 

• Jones's Pier in Indian River County, an historic home 
site along the Jungle Trail that once served as a tourist 
destination, farm-to-market transportation of citrus and 
tropical fruits, and commercial fishing 

• The expansion of Fort Mose State Park in St. Johns 
County, site of the first free-black settlement in the United 

• The fourth phase of the Cypress Creek Natural Area 
in Palm Beach County, which contains a portion of the 
Seminole War-era Loxahatchee Battlefield 

• Kroegel Homestead in Indian River County, home of 
Paul Kroegel, champion of the Pelican Island National 
Wildlife Refuge and first wildlife warden at the very first 
national wildlife refuge 

• The 1912 Cortez Schoolhouse in Manatee County, listed 
in the National Register of Historic Places 

• The Fort King site in Ocala, headquarters of Second 
Seminole War operations and now a National Historic 

• Native American sites protected by the FCT include 
the shell middens at the Paleo Hammock Preserve in 
St. Lucie County and the Micanopy Native American 
Preserve in Alachua County. These projects contain 
archaeological evidence of more than 1,000 years of 
human activity. 

• Understanding that education plays an important role 
in resource conservation, the FCT places a priority on 
selecting projects that include educational elements. The 
FCT awarded more than $55 million in 2008-2009 to 
acquire projects that include programs to educate Florida 
residents. In 2009-2010, the FCT awarded over $33 
million while in 2010-2011, over $17 million was awarded 
by the FCT. 

Formal Historic Preservation 
Academic Programs 

There are 19 colleges and universities in the state that offer 
either academic programs or coursework that focus on 



historic preservation and historic preservation related fields 
such as public history, archaeology, public archaeology, 
architectural history, and urban and regional planning. In 
addition, several universities and colleges are caretakers of 
historic properties, with six of them managing NR-listed 


The more programs we have in undergraduate and graduate 
schools and universities the better chance we have for the 
future of historic preservation preserving our historic sites 
and neighborhoods. 

-Comment from Survey 

Perhaps the most developed historic preservation academic 
program in the state is at the University of Florida. The 

University began offering historic preservation coursework 

in 1968, one of the first in the country to do so. Offering 

graduate certification, a master's degree, and doctoral 

degree in historic preservation, the program houses 

the Center for Building Better Communities and the 

Center for World Heritage Research and Stewardship. 

It also operates the Preservation Institute: Nantucket, 

which is the nations oldest continually operating field 

school in historic preservation. While the creation of 

the historic preservation program is closely tied to the 

University's architecture school, it has expanded into a 

multidisciplinary program encompassing architecture, 

building construction, interior design, landscape 

architecture, planning, museum studies, and tourism. 

I feel that education is the first step y and for a university 

like this [University of Florida] to highlight the 

importance of Historic Preservation, shows that the next 

generations of students will be better equipped to include 

this practice in the business decisions. 

-Comment from Survey 

Since the late 1970s, the Master's of Arts in History 

with a Major in Public History program at Florida 

State University has prepared students to enter 

historically oriented careers in fields such as cultural 

resources management, historic preservation, 

museums, archives, and information and records 

management. FSU recognizes that public 

historians need specialized training to be effective 

in their chosen careers. Therefore, public history 

blends theory with practice, providing students 

with a well-rounded education in historical 

methods, scholarship, and practical application. 

Students also choose an emphasis area to 

build their program of study around: Cultural Resources 
Management, Historical Records Administration, 
Southern History and Florida Studies, War and Society, 
History Education, New Media and Public History, or 
Museum Studies. 

In addition to the FSU history department's award winning 
faculty, students have the opportunity to take classes from 
community leaders in public history. Moreover, Tallahassee 
offers students in the program unique opportunities. The 
Public History program has established relationships with 
local area public history institutions such as the Museum 
of Florida History, the Florida State Archives, the 
Tallahassee Trust for Historic Preservation, and Mission 
San Luis, among many others, that provide students with 
internship opportunities. Graduates of the program, 
almost half of whom come from out of state, have gone on 
to find employment in the government sector, the private 
sector, and within educational institution. 

Among the two most notable public archaeology academic 
programs in the state are those at the University of South 
Florida (USF) and the University of West Florida 

(UWF). The USF public archaeology program, founded in 
1974, is the first of its kind in the nation. The anthropology 
school is also the first in the country to offer a Ph.D. in 
Applied Archaeology. Today, more than 30 percent of 
members of the Florida Archaeological Council are 
graduates of the USF Public Archaeology Program. 

Artifacts from the Maple Leaf Shipwreck 
Florida Division of Historical Resources 



The University of West Florida's public archaeology 
program, an extension of the University's Archaeology 
Institute, is notable for the lead it took in the creation of the 
Florida Public Archaeology Network. Dr. Judith Bense, 
the current president of UWF, was longtime director of 
the UWF Archaeology Institute. A very early focus of 
the Institute was on public involvement 
with archaeology, and by extension, the 
public archaeology program. Professors 
in the program provide archaeological 
talks and tours for civic groups, special 
interest groups, and schools. 

Another ancillary field with close 

connections to Historic Preservation 

is Landscape Architecture. A 

good summary of the Landscape 

Architecture field can be found on 

the Florida International University 

website: "Landscape architecture is 

a comprehensive discipline of land 

analysis, planning, design, management, 

preservation, and rehabilitation. Typical 

projects include site design and planning, 

town and urban planning, regional 

planning, environmental impact plans, 

garden design, historic preservation, and parks design 

and planning." Landscape architects are often advocates 

and custodians of historic landscapes. 

There are three universities in the state of Florida that 

offer programs in Landscape Architecture: University 

of Florida, Florida A & M University, and Florida 

International University. A good 

example is the Florida International 

University (FIU) Landscape 

Architecture program. The only 

program of its kind in south Florida, 

the school requires students to 

demonstrate knowledge in a variety 

of fields, including the history of 

landscape architecture and historic 

preservation. FIU has a branch 

campus at the University of Genoa in 

Genoa, Italy, that offers coursework 

for Landscape Architecture 

students. The FIU program was 

selected to host the 2012 Landscape 

Architecture Student Conference, 

a major academic and professional 

ate vicw^e uv 

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and urUA/€Ml£teA 

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— Comment from survey 

gathering drawing landscape architects 
from around the world. 

Some of the institutions of higher learning 
in the state do not offer programs in 
historic preservation related fields but have 
stewardship over significant 
historic properties. The Florida 
Southern College campus in 
Lakeland is a prime example. 
The campus features the largest 
single concentration of Frank 
Lloyd Wright designed buildings 
in the world. The Florida 
Southern College Historic 
District, comprising nine resources 
designed by Wright, was listed 
in the National Register in 1975. 
Since 1995, the district was the 
recipient of over $2.3 million in state 
historic preservation grants. Added 
to the World Monument Fund's 
2008 Watch List, the school has 
also received a $195,000 grant from 
the Getty Foundation in July 2006, 
and a $350,000 grant from the Save 
Americas Treasures Program in 2008 to restore the 
Annie Pfeiffer Chapel, the centerpiece of the campus. 
In 2012, the Florida Southern College Historic District 
was designated a National Historic Landmark. 

Artifact display at St. Augustine Pirate and Treasure 
Museum, St. Augustine Pirate and Treasure Museum, 

St. Augustine 




t f 




1. University of West Florida 

2. Florida A&M University 

3. Florida State University 

4. University of North Florida 

5. Flagler College 

6. Santa Fe College 

7. University of Florida 

8. Stetson University 

9. Rollins College 

10. University of Central Florida 

11. Brevard Community College 

12. St. Leo University 

13. University of South Florida 

14. New College of Florida 

15. Florida Gulf Coast University 

16. Florida Atlantic University 

17. Florida International University 

18. Miami-Dade College 

19. University of Miami 

University of Miami, Jorge M. Perez Archieteccture Center, Coral Gables 
Courtesy University of Miami, John Zillioux, photographer 






Local Governments 

As important as these statewide programs are, the greatest 
power to preserve Florida's cultural resources lies at the 
local level. Across the state, individuals are taking action 
to preserve the unique historic characteristics of their 
communities. An effective local historic preservation 
program begins with the enactment of a historic preservation 
ordinance and the creation of a qualified historic 
preservation board. A community with such programs 
may apply to the National Park Service for designation as a 
Certified Local Government (CLG). The CLG Program, 
administered by the Bureau of Historic Preservation, 
encourages direct local government participation in federal 
and state historic preservation programs. The program 
links the three levels of government (federal, state, and 
local) in a preservation partnership for the identification, 
evaluation, and protection of historic properties. CLGs are 
guaranteed at least 10% of the total federal funds received 
each year from the Historic Preservation Fund grant from 
the National Park Service. As of October 2011, 60 Florida 
communities have participated in the CLG Program. 

The energy of historic preservation at the local level 
in Florida is demonstrated by its growing number of 
CLGs, markers, and 20 Preserve America communities. 
The Preserve America Program is a national initiative 
established in 2003. Communities are chosen through an 
application process that focuses on their commitment and 
proven effort to protect and celebrate their heritage, using 
their historical resources for economic development and 
community revitalization. Funding for Preserve America 
grants was eliminated from the federal budget in 2011, 
but the concepts the program fostered continue to raise 
awareness of the historical significance of our communities. 
In 2010, the Bureau of Historic Preservation, DHR, 
applied for and received a $200,000 Preserve America 
historic preservation grant from the National Park Service. 
The BHP used the funds to award 14 historic preservation 
subgrants to Florida cities and counties. The grantees are 
currently using their awards to conduct historic preservation 
training, community education, archaeological survey, 
and historic structure assessment projects statewide. The 
projects will be completed June 30, 2012. 

Venetian Pool, Coral Gables 

Florida Division of Historical Resources 



Leon County 




Fernandina Beach 


St. Augustine 




Daytona Beach 








Tarpon Springs 






St. Petersburg 




Fort Myers 


Delray Beach 


Miami Springs 




Coral Gables 


Key West 




*> .;;••■ •* 


Non-Profit Organizations 

In addition to state and local agencies, a number of key 
private organizations also provide essential leadership. The 
FloridaTrust for Historic Preservation is Florida's private 
not-for-profit statewide preservation organization, formed 
in 1978 as a network of committed preservationists. The 
mission of the FloridaTrust is to promote the preservation 
of the architectural, historical, and archaeological heritage 
of Florida through property stewardship, legislative 
advocacy, and education. The Trust also promotes the 
protection of historically significant properties through its 
easement program. The Trust currently holds easements 
on nine historic properties throughout the state. Regular 
activities of the Trust include an annual conference each 
May, Insider's Tours to historic Florida cities, and a series 
of workshops on preservation-related topics. 

The Florida Trust advocates for legislation and funding in 
support of historic preservation on behalf of Florida's many 
historic sites, museums and parks. The Trust represents 
Florida's preservation community through public and 
media outreach. It works to empower and support local 
preservationists by publicizing an annual list of Florida's 
Eleven Most Endangered Historic Sites, and recognizing 
outstanding efforts in historic preservation through its 
annual preservation awards program. The Trust offers 
extensive education and training opportunities, including 
local workshops, webinars, and an annual conference during 
the month of May each year. While working to educate the 
public on the benefits of historic preservation, the Trust 
also provides resources to preservationists, homeowners, 
preservation professionals, and media representatives. 
During the prior plan period (2006-2011), the Trust 

successfully acquired and rehabilitated a Queen 
Anne style building in Tallahassee known as 
the Hays-Hood House to create a statewide 
center for historic preservation. They continue 
to serve as owners and stewards of the Bonnet 
House Museum & Gardens, a designated Ft. 
Lauderdale Landmark that is also listed on the 
National Register of Historic Places. The Trust 
has also established a GoogleTM group listserv 
which provides an online forum for preservationist 
members throughout Florida and beyond. 

Another crucial partner in historic preservation 
is the various local neighborhood associations 
and non-profit organizations located throughout 
the state. These organizations often have the most 
direct impact on historic preservation within 
their respective communities and are crucial in 
raising historic preservation awareness locally. 
These organizations help foster a sense of civic 
pride amongst local citizens and often have direct 
stewardship over important historical resources. 
Riverside Avondale Preservation, Inc. (RAP), 
located in Jacksonville, is an excellent example of an 
historic preservation organization dealing primarily 
with an immediate neighborhood. The group provides 
heritage and architectural preservation services, 
educational workshops, hosts local festivals aimed at 
improving the quality of life of their residents, and 
maintains a historic house as its headquarters. Thanks 
in large part to the efforts of RAP, the Riverside 
Avondale community was named one of the American 
Planning Associations 10 Great Neighborhoods in 
America in 2010. 

Bonnet House Museum & Gardens, Fort Lauderdale 

Courtesy Bonnett House Museum & Gardens, David Waren, photographer 

Hays-Hood House, Tallahassee 
Florida Division of Historical Resources 



There are a number of non-profit historic preservation 
organizations that focus on citywide, countywide 
or regional preservation. The Dade Heritage Trust 
(DHT) in Miami, founded in 1972, is one of the oldest 
historic preservation organizations in the state. DHT 
played a pivotal role in the preservation of the world- 
renowned Miami Beach Art Deco Architectural 
District, the Miami Circle and the Cape Florida 
Lighthouse. West Florida Preservation, Inc. (WFP), 
in Pensacola, and the Everglades Society for 
Historic Preservation (ESHP) in Everglades City, 
Collier County, are excellent examples of historic 
preservation organizations with a regional focus. 
The WFP originated as a state historic preservation 
board in 1967 before being transferred to the 
University of West Florida in 2001. The ESHP 
was founded by concerned citizens in 2004. Both 
organizations are active in historic preservation 
stewardship and historic preservation education, 
as well as outreach designed to raise money and 
awareness for preservation. 

five] only lived in Florida 1.5 years, but have 
learned a lot of the historical information 
concerning the Pensacola area. 

-Comment from survey 

Many organizations in the state, such as the St. Augustine 
Historical Society (SAHS), have a primary focus in 
museum management or historical research, but also have a 
well developed program of historic preservation.The SAHS, 
founded in 1881 by a group of history and natural history 
enthusiasts, has been involved in historic preservation in 
St. Augustine since 1899. The preservation-based tourism 
industry of the city owes much to the SAHS, which played 
a pivotal role in the restoration of such landmarks as the 
Castillo de San Marcos, Fort Matanzas, the Gonzalez- 
Alvarez House and Segui-Kirby- Smith House. Many 
non-profit organizations do not offer preservation services 
but rather focus on specific individual preservation projects 
within their communities. The West Gadsden Historical 
Society in Greensboro is a small rural community based 
non-profit organization that acquired and saved two major 
landmarks in the city of Greensboro. 


Historic house museums also play a vital role 
preservation, not only preserving buildings historically 
important to their respective communities, but also 
educating the community about the significance of the 
buildings in their community's history. There are a number 
of these located throughout the state, such as the Peter 
O. Knight Historic House (Tampa), the Stranahan House 
(Ft. Lauderdale), the John G. Riley House (Tallahassee), 



the West Pasco Historical Society Museum and Library 
(New Port Richey), and the St. Augustine Lighthouse 
Museum (St. Augustine). 

The Florida Anthropological Society (FAS) is a 

statewide preservation organization that makes significant 
contributions in research, education, protection and 
preservation of some of the state's most important cultural 
sites. The Society unites professional and avocational 
interests to achieve a better understanding of Florida's 
archaeological resources. With 16 chapters throughout 
the state, FAS operates under and advocates strict codes 
of ethics for research on archaeological 
resources in Florida. FAS publishes the 
journal, The Florida Anthropologist, that 
provides summary research reports on 
contemporary research topics of interest 
to avocational, professional and non- 
technical readers. The organization has 
recently produced an award-winning 
video on Florida's Native people called 
"Shadows and Reflections: Florida's Lost 
Peoples. "The organization holds its annual 
conference in the spring of each year. 

The Florida Archaeological Council 

(FAC) is an organization of professional 
archaeologists working in or with an 
interest in Florida archaeology. Their 
stated mission is education: to promote and 
stimulate interest in Florida archaeology, 
to encourage public appreciation of 
archaeology, to promote high quality standards of 
archaeological practice, and to advocate and aid in the 
conservation and preservation of archaeological resources 
and materials. Their programs include: Stewards of Heritage 
Preservation Awards, a biannual award that recognizes the 
role of non-archaeologists in preservation, education, and 
research; the John W. Griffin Student Grant that provides 
financial assistance to students conducting research and 
cultural resource management projects in Florida; the FAC 
Newsletter, a forum for the dissemination of information 
and news regarding archaeological issues and research; and 
professional development workshops that provide training 
and exchange of ideas regarding specific and current 
topics of concern. The organization also works to educate 
legislators and encourage passage of important legislation 
that will have a positive impact on cultural resources in the 
state. FAC initiated and continues to support Florida 
Archaeology Month, in partnership with the Florida 

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— Comment from survey 

Anthropological Society, the Division of 
Historical Resources, and Florida State Parks. 
Each March, this annual month-long program 
of events educates tens of thousands of citizens 
and visitors about Florida's past. 

The Trust for Public Land (TPL) is a national, 
not-for-profit, land conservation organization 
that conserves land for people to enjoy as parks, 
community gardens, historic sites, rural lands, and 
other natural places, ensuring livable communities 
for future generations. TPL has a particular 
conservation initiative for Heritage 
Lands, by which it safeguards 
places of historical and cultural 
importance. Since 1972, TPL has 
worked with willing landowners, 
community groups, and national, 
state, and local agencies to complete 
more than 2,700 land conservation 
projects in 46 states, protecting nearly 
2 million acres. TPL has helped states 
and communities craft and pass 192 
ballot measures, generating over $35 
billion in new conservation-related 
funding. In Florida, a few of the recent 
projects achieved with support from 
TPL include Cypress Gardens, McKee 
Gardens, the Key West Customs House, 
the Miami Circle, and the de Soto 
Encampment Site. 

The Florida Humanities Council (FHC) was established 
in 1973 as a private non-profit organization. The 
Organization's mission is to build "strong communities 
and informed citizens by providing Floridians with the 
opportunity to explore the heritage, traditions and stories 
of our state and its place in the world." The FHC is the state 
affiliate of the National Endowment for the Humanities. 
Since 1973, the Council has provided a wide range of 
educational programs and products to tell Florida's story, 
including workshops for K-12 teachers, heritage tours, a 
humanities speakers bureau, and literary programs. Their 
publication, FORUM, is an award winning magazine 
about Florida's heritage and culture. 

The Florida Humanities Council has been a strong partner 
in promoting Florida's heritage, especially during the Viva 
Florida 500 commemoration of Juan Ponce De Leon's 
landing on Florida's shores in 1513. In October 2009, 



for Florida's global tourism marketing efforts and 
the state's official source for travel planning. VISIT 
FLORIDA continues to include promotion of 
Florida's distinct historical and cultural heritage 
destinations. Historical and cultural heritage 
attractions have long been popular destinations 
attracting visitors to the "Sunshine State". Without 
historic preservation efforts, Florida's tourism 
marketers would not have the quality and quantity 
of historic or heritage tourism "products" to market 
as visitor destinations. 

the FHC hosted a Scholar Summit to discuss how to 

commemorate the Quincentenary of Ponce De Leon's 

landing in Florida. The FHC also sponsored 2-minute 

audio programs about Florida's Spanish history that 

were made available via the FHC website and aired 

on Florida public radio stations. In 2010, the FHC 

awarded grants for scholarly research to develop 

public programs related to the Commemoration, 

and for three statewide conferences, held at the 

Miami Humanities Center, Flagler College in St. 

Augustine, and the University of South Florida 

in Tampa. The Council also created a website 

dedicated to its own Viva Florida 500 activities 

that included the organization of a speakers 

bureau, teacher training, and a special edition 

of FORUM, ";Viva Florida ! : Marking 500 

years of Spanish heritage," dedicated to the 

Quincentenary Commemoration. 

VISIT FLORIDA is the industry-driven, not- 
for-profit, public/private partnership responsible 

Since 2000, VISIT FLORIDA has worked 
very closely with numerous state agencies, the 
preservation/conservation community, not-for- 
profit organizations, and many tourism industry 
partners to promote heritage tourism in Florida. 
VISIT FLORIDA'S Cultural/Heritage/Rural/ 
Nature Committee of the Marketing Committee 
Steering Council continues to guide new and 
existing heritage tourism programs. On-going 
marketing initiatives, such as expanded history 
and culture sections on the VISIT FLORIDA 
website, targeted E-zines (electronic magazines), 
and print publications, will continue to expand 
the depth of the Florida vacation experience to 
include Florida's rich history and diverse heritage. 
In conjunction with the Viva Florida 500 initiative, 
VISIT FLORIDA has incorporated much of the 
destination content of the Division of Historical 
Resources' Florida Heritage Trail publications on its 
website at encouraging visitors to 
"Explore the Sunshine State's Cultural Heritage Trails." 

Founded in 1986, 1000 Friends of Florida is a statewide 
not-for-profit organization devoted to promoting healthy 
urban and natural places by wise management of growth 
and change. It works to protect natural areas, fight urban 
sprawl, promote sensible development patterns, preserve 
historic resources, and provide affordable housing. The 
1000 Friends organization educates, advocates, negotiates 
and, when necessary, litigates, to achieve its goals. 

The historic preservation activities of 1000 Friends have 
included developing educational materials such as the 
award-winning manual partially funded with a grant 
from DHR, Disaster Planning for Florida's Historic 
Resources; working with pilot communities to implement 
the manual; assisting with the revitalization of waterfront 
communities; developing policies related to historic bridge 



preservation; and providing limited planning assistance 
to local governments and organizations on preservation 
issues. Since the release of Disaster Planning for Florida's 
Historic Resources in 2003, two additional publications 
have come out through 1000 Friends of Florida, Post- 
Disaster Planning - A Guide for Florida Communities 
(2010) and Disaster Mitigation for Historic Structures: 
Protection Strategies (2008). 

The Florida Folklore Society is a partner of the Florida 
Folklife Program. Founded in 1981 at the urging of the 
Florida Folklife Program, the Florida Folklore Society is 
a professional organization whose purpose is to advance 
appreciation, research, and study of folklore. The society's 
main function is to serve as the voice of all the members for 
the purpose of distribution of news, ideas, and information. 
Every spring, the society holds an annual meeting, 
which is held in a different city each year. Members in 
attendance discuss society news, share information on 
current projects, and watch a presentation from a local 
folk artist. All interested persons, regardless of ethnicity, 
are encouraged to become members. The Florida Folklore 

Society is incorporated as a non-profit organization. The 
State Folklorist serves as the liaison between the Florida 
Folklife Program and the Florida Folklore Society, and is 
on the Board of Directors of the Florida Folklore Society 
in an ex-officio capacity. 

Established in 2004, the Florida Public Archaeology 
Network (FPAN) is a network of public archaeology 
centers designed to help stem the rapid deterioration 
of this state's buried past and expand public interest in 

The Florida Public Archaeology Network will be a great 
way to preserve archaeological resources — I wish there was a 
comparable organization for historic resources. 
-Comment from survey 

FPAN works in cooperation with the State Historic 
Preservation Officer and the Division of Historical 
Resources through a cooperative memorandum of 
agreement. With eight regional offices statewide, FPAN 
provides a community-based platform for representation 



of preservation efforts. FPAN regional offices sponsor an 
ongoing series of workshops, lectures, and field events in 
their nearby communities. Public meetings to generate 
feedback and input for this comprehensive plan were 
conducted in cooperation with local FPAN offices. 

The Florida African American Heritage Preservation 
Network (FAAHPN), established in 2001 through the 
John Gilmore Riley House Museum in Tallahassee, is 
another important partner in the preservation of Florida's 
heritage. The Network provides professional development 
and technical assistance in the areas of historic preservation 
and museum management to historic sites and museums 
specializing in African American-related history. In 2007, 
the Network contributed significantly to the expansion of 
listings in the third edition of the Department of State's 
Florida Black Heritage Trail guidebook. In August 2011, 
the FAAHPN hosted the annual national conference 
of the Association of African American Museums in 
Tallahassee. Florida Department of State staff participated 



Black Heritaee Tral 


in presentations about the technical aspects of historic 
preservation of African American properties, and the 
benefits of documenting and then presenting traditional 
African American culture in museums. 

The Florida Historical Society (FHS) is the oldest cultural 
organization in the state, and the only state-wide historical 
society. Established in St. Augustine in 1856, the FHS was 
briefly inactive during the Civil War and Reconstruction, 
but was reestablished in 1902 and incorporated in 1905. 
The FHS is dedicated to preserving Florida's past through 
the collection, archival maintenance, and publication of 
historical documents and other materials relating to the 
history of Florida and its peoples. 

The Society operates the FHS Press, which publishes 
a diverse collection of books, maintains the Library of 
Florida History with its extensive archival collections, 
and manages the Historic Rossetter House Museum in 
Melbourne, Florida. The FHS publishes scholarly research 
in the Florida Historical Quarterly and 
produces Florida Frontiers: The Weekly Radio 
Magazine of the Florida Historical Society. 
FHS presents a variety of educational public 
outreach programs, including the Florida 
History Film Festival and the Discover 
Florida Lecture Series. The Society 
reaches out to youth by providing various 
published materials and forms of media to 
assist teachers, and by sponsoring prizes 
for projects related to Florida history at the 
annual statewide Florida History Fair. The 
Florida Historical Society Annual Meeting, 
held each May, features panel discussions 
and other special events such as luncheons 
and tours. Since 1997, the Headquarters 
of the Society has been located in historic 
downtown Cocoa Village at the Library of 
Florida History. 

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Florida's Resources, An Assessment 

Florida's historic resources reflect the long and varied 
history of settlement here. Among the notable examples 
are the Paleoindian Page/Ladson Site in Jefferson County, 
dating from 10,000-7,500 B.C.; the Archaic Windover 
Site near Titusville, which dates from 5,500 B.C.; Crystal 
River Indian Mounds (500 B.C. - A.D. 200); Castillo de 
San Marcos in St. Augustine, constructed between 1672 
and 1696 and the oldest masonry fort in the United States; 
the Town of Eatonville, established in 1887 as the first 
all-black incorporated town in Florida; Florida's Historic 
Capitol, restored to its 1902 configuration; Miami Beach 
Art Deco Architectural District, a world renowned tourist 
destination; and Kennedy Space Center, site of U.S. 
manned space flights and the launches that put Americans 
on the moon. 

Such outstanding historic and cultural resources give 
Florida its extraordinary identity. Historic resources 
are buildings, structures, objects, sites, and districts that 
are significant to the history, architecture, archaeology, 

engineering, and culture of a local community, the state 
of Florida, or the entire country. The Florida Master 
Site File (FMSF) is the state's inventory and archive of 
information on archaeological sites, including underwater 
cultural heritage such as shipwrecks, cultural landscapes, 
and historical standing buildings and structures. The 
FMSF identifies whether an area has been inventoried for 
cultural resources, what resources are recorded in particular 
areas, and which officially- evaluated resources are 
considered historically significant. As of 2011, the Florida 
Master Site File has recorded over 187,000 resources. 
The number of new recordings added to the FMSF has 
seen an overall decline since 2006, reinforcing the fact 
that there is a strong correlation between the health of 
the state economy and preservation activity. Over the last 
five years, Florida has added over 100 National Register 
listings, providing an overview of major types of important 
resources in Florida. 

Highlights of those listings include numerous historical 
archaeological sites. Among them were two submissions 
for British Period properties: the multiple property 
submission (MPS) for Archaeological Resources of 
the 18th-Century Smyrnea Settlement of Dr. Andrew 



Turnbull and 12 related nominations (1766-1777) in New 
Smyrna Beach; and Three Chimneys Archaeological Site 
(ca. 1770-1783) in Volusia County. Another historical 
archaeological listing is the Etna Turpentine Camp (ca. 
1898 — 1926) in Citrus County. Letchworth Mounds 
Archaeological Site, from the Middle-Late Woodland 
Period (AD 200-900), in Jefferson County, was the only 
National Register listing from Florida's prehistoric period. 

Recent Past 

Florida has many significant resources dating from 

the recent past, due in large part to the huge growth in 

population that the state experienced after World War II. 

Many communities were established during that time, and 

in the 1950s and 1960s, many neighborhoods were created 

or simply expanded as Mid-Century Modern homes 

and commercial buildings were constructed. Because 

of the large number of such resources, preservationists 

have wrestled with defining criteria for evaluating these 

resources, particularly what level of integrity is necessary 

to be considered eligible for listing in the National 

Register of Historic Places. 

Miami Modern, or "MiMo"is a relatively new term coined 
by a local preservationist and interior designer that refers 
to the very unique interpretation of mid-century tropical 
architecture that is found in Miami, Miami Beach and 
the environs. While the preservation of mid century 
architecture is happening all around the country, the 
resort vernacular that the style morphed into here in south 
Florida has practically exploded in popularity recently . . . 
-Success cited in survey 

Listings of properties from the recent past (mid- 
20th century) have started to come forward in ever- 
increasing numbers. In response to this trend, the 
University of Florida sponsored a public workshop, 
"Evaluating Resources from the Recent Past," held 
in Gainesville, November 6-9, 2008, and issued a 
white paper by the same title. The paper addresses 
the issues involved in evaluating and nominating 
these special properties. Significant examples of 
recent past listings in Florida include the Lucien 
Nielsen House (1956), which was listed as part 
of a Sarasota School of Architecture Multiple 
Property Submission; the Lincoln Road Mall 
(1960) in Miami Beach; Vedado Historic 
District (1924-1927, 1946-1956) in West Palm 
Beach; and the Fontainebleau Hotel (1953- 
1958) in Miami Beach. With each mid-century 

nomination, preservationists at the state and local levels 
have gained a better understanding of how to evaluate 
these resources. The State Historic Preservation Office has 
begun the development of a Multiple Property Submission 
cover for Mid- Century Modern homes. When completed, 
that tool, as well as the Sarasota School MPS mentioned 
above, will provide a guide for local communities in 
how to evaluate their communities, and how National 
Register listings for recent past properties can and should 
be pursued. In addition to residential properties, Mid- 
Century Modern schools, many representing the Sarasota 
School of Architecture, are threatened with demolition. 
More needs to be done to educate the public and school 
board officials about the architectural significance of many 
of these schools. 

Historic Landscapes 

A few Florida rural landscapes are listed the National 
Register, primarily farms or ranches, but agricultural 
farmland, cattle pastureland, and horse farms and groves, 
particularly in Central Florida, continue to be threatened. 
According to the Florida Statistical Abstract for 2010, 
from 2002 to 2007, the number of large farms (50-2,000 
acres in size) fell 51.4 percent, though the number of small 
farms (0-49 acres) rose by 31.3 percent. 

Over the last five years, landscapes were recognized by the 
listing of the formal Cummer Gardens (1903-1958) in 
Jacksonville; several rural landscapes, such as the Billingsly 
Farm (1889-1957) in Leon County; and the John Nolen 
Plan for the Venice Historic District (1926), the nations 
first 20th century town plan to gain registration. 

Urbanization and Suburbanization 

The continuing physical expansion of Florida's communities 
contributes to the loss of rural areas. Many citrus groves 
that were destroyed by freezes, insect infestations, and 
disease have been converted into rolling hills of rooftops. 
In the last five years, 16 urban historic districts were listed 
in the National Register. About half of them reflect the 
growth and expansion of suburbs, a trend that gained 
strength beginning in the 1920s; only in the last few years 
has there been great interest in returning to our core urban 
areas. Examples of those listings include the districts 
of North City and Nelmar Terrace in St. Augustine, 
Normandy Isles in Miami Beach, Rosemere in Orlando, 
and Prospect Park in West Palm Beach The other half 
of those listings represent downtown commercial districts, 



such as those listed in Winter Park, Homestead, Boca 
Grande, and the Upper North Franklin Commercial 
District in Tampa. Movements back to cities and a desire 
for vital downtowns sometimes lead to the demolition 
of historic building stock, but the establishment of more 
Main Street programs and stronger local preservation 
programs, especially the designation of more active 
Certified Local Governments, could help prevent 
unnecessary demolitions. More surveys need to be 
conducted to identify significant resources, especially in 
smaller communities. Special attention needs to be given 
to ethnic resources. The need for these activities is borne 
out of a statewide survey of local governments funded by 
a grant from the Division of Historical Resources to the 
Florida Trust for Historic Preservation. 

We need to help people appreciate the historical resources we 
have, or at least help people understand the importance of 
historical resources. 

Not everyone likefs] certain styles, etc., but if people 
understand that the [design] guidelines, etc. are not out to get 
them, I think there could be more successful projects. 

More proactive measures to combat demo by neglect [are 
needed]. Educate/work with property owners - get them to 
a buy into" preservation. 

-Comments from survey 

In 2007, the Florida Public Archaeology 
Network conducted a survey of local 
governments for the Florida Trust. The resulting 
study, Local Government Preservation Program 
Directory (LGPPD), shows that despite the 
State's planning policy, the implementation of 
historic preservation practices is uneven across 
the state, with North Florida cities reporting a 
higher level of historic preservation policy in 
place, in terms of the use of historic preservation 
language included in their local comprehensive 
plans, and the existence of historic preservation 
ordinances. A statewide view of these two 
measures, however, shows that fewer than half of 
the cities that responded have any sort of historic 
preservation policies in place. 

Bungalow style home 
Florida Division of Historical Resources 

Cities That Have Local Ordinances With Preservation Language 

North Florida 

South Florida 


Total number of cities responding 




Have Historic Preservation Language 

54 (48%) 

67 (41%) 

121 (44%) 

Do not have Historic Preservation Language 

37 (33%) 

53 (32%) 

90 (33%) 

Don't know 

21 (19%) 

44 (27%) 

65 (23%) 

Cities That Have Local Preservation Ordinance 

North Florida 

South Florida 


Total number of cities responding 




Have Historic Preservation Ordinances 

60 (56%) 

58 (35%) 

118 (43%) 

Do not have Historic Preservation Ordinances 

47 (44%) 

110 (65%) 

157 (57%) 



The fact that over 20% of the respondents were not 

aware of whether their comprehensive plan included 

historic preservation language is further enlightened 

by the surveyor's finding that "most of the counties 

use the Florida Master Site File; however, only a little 

over half of cities use, or even know about, the Site 

File records maintained by the Division of Historical 

Resources. . ." In local jurisdictions throughout the 

state of Florida, some language exists for historic 

preservation but it is often vague and many of the 

individuals interviewed have little or no knowledge 

of this area of their comprehensive plan. 

Eighty- seven cities indicate their ordinances 

are online, while 44 state that their ordinances 

are not available through online resources. 

Interested individuals can obtain, for a fee, 

copies of the ordinances through their local City 

Hall or Chamber of Commerce (LGPPD, 18). 

Several contacts were unable to recall when 

the ordinances were enacted or how often the 

ordinances are updated. 

Based on these results, the study concluded that 
"communication between planners, clerks, and others 
involved in Historic Preservation programs and ordinances 
seems to be limited and many of the individuals have 
little knowledge of how to proceed in strengthening 
historic preservation in their area." The study strongly 
recommended improved education of city and county 
planners, managers, clerks, or others involved in historic 
preservation, specifically in a series of small workshops. 
Also recommended was the availability of model 
ordinances, and a means to communicate better with one 
another on a statewide basis, (e.g., website or live chat). 
Basic education about historic preservation was also seen 
as a need. "Educational outreach to explain what qualifies 
as a cultural resource is a necessary first step for several 
cities and counties. Increased knowledge of the states 
existing historic preservation programs and resources, such 
as the Master Site File, will assist cities and counties in 
understanding what historic sites exist and perhaps how 
better to define such areas within their jurisdictions" 
(LGPPD, 25). 



There is also a need to provide information on possible 
sources of funding, and for better cooperative preservation 
efforts between cities and their counties: 

Overall, the state of historic preservation ordinances in 
Florida encompasses a broad spectrum. Some counties and 
cities have almost no programs in place with few, if any, 
ordinances on paper. These areas often cite a lack of interest 
in historic preservation and indicate that few historic sites 
exist within their jurisdiction, thus obviating the need 
for any form of regulation. Other areas strongly support 
historic preservation and emphasize the possibilities of 
heritage tourism as an important aspect of the economy of 
their area (p. 25, LPPD). 

It is clear that Florida's local historic preservation 
programs need to be strengthened through providing 
better education of local officials and a willingness on their 
part to develop and implement good historic preservation 
planning practices. This will greatly benefit efforts to 
preserve Florida's urban and suburban historical resources. 
Loss of minority communities because of urban expansion 
(cited as a major challenge in Survey) 

African-American Resources 

The significance of Florida's African-American-related 
resources has been recognized since the early 1970s, with 
the listing of Olustee Battlefield in which U.S. Colored 
Troops played a significant role in the defeat of Union 

troops during the Civil War. Today there are 
94 listings in the National Register related to 
Florida's black history, five of which were added 
in the last five years: Jackson Rooming House 
(1905-1957) in Tampa; St. Ritas Colored 
Catholic Mission (1899-1924, 1956-1969) 
in New Smyrna Beach; Holden-Parramore 
Historic District (1921-1953) in Orlando; A. 
Quinn Jones House (1925-1957) in Gainesville; 
and the Women's Working Band House (1921- 
1950) in Tallahassee. These resources represent 
the wide range of contributions African 
Americans made to the religious, educational, and 
economic development and character of Florida, 
often under trying conditions. Educational 
facilities and institutions are usually included in 
community surveys. 

A multiple property submission cover, however, 
exists for Florida's Historic Black Public Schools. 
Among Florida's historic black schools are ones that 
were constructed in the 1920s with support from the 
Rosenwald Fund. Julius Rosenwald, the president 
of Sears, Roebuck & Co., established the fund in 
1917 to support the sorely needed construction of 
school facilities for African American school children. 
Most facilities were built in the South. Florida's first 
"Rosenwald School" was built in 1921; 147 education 
buildings were constructed in Florida with Rosenwald 
Fund assistance by 1932, the year Rosenwald died. A 




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cory l-fill Cemetery of Welcrunee Plantation, Tallahasse* 
Florida. Division of [Historical Resource 

recent survey of Florida's Rosenwald schools shows that 
only 26 of Florida's Rosenwald schools remain. National 
Register nominations should be completed for the ones 
that retain their historic architectural integrity. 

In 2006, Congress designated the Gullah/Geechee 
Cultural Heritage Corridor or National Heritage 
Area. A national heritage area is "a place where natural, 
cultural, historic and recreational resources combine to 
form a cohesive, nationally-distinctive landscape arising 
from patterns of human activity shaped by geography. 
These areas tell nationally important stories about 
our nation and are representations of the national 
experience through both the physical features that 
remain and the traditions that have evolved within 
them." Currently, there are 49 of these areas in the 
United States. The Gullah/Geechee tradition was 
"first shaped by captive Africans brought to the 
southern United States from West Africa and 
continued in later generations by their descendants." 
This corridor is unique in that it crosses state lines, 
including "sea island" areas from Wilmington, 
North Carolina, south to Duval County, Florida, 
capturing Florida's Gullah/Geechee communities 
in the coastal regions of the Amelia Island and 
Jacksonville areas. The Gullah/Geechee Culture 
Heritage Corridor Commission includes scholars 
and citizen representatives from each of the four 
participating states. The Commissions primary 
responsibility is to develop and implement a 
management plan for the corridor. 

The Divisions Florida Black Heritage Trail 

publication is a very popular tool for finding 

historic African-American sites to visit, and has been 
instrumental in helping to bring visitors to Florida. In 
2011, the Association of African American Museums, in 
conjunction with the John G. Riley House and Museum 
(headquarters of the Florida African American Heritage 
Preservation Network) held its annual convention in 
Tallahassee, and provided another national spotlight for 
Florida's important black resources. More needs to be done 
to engage Florida's African Americans in the importance 
of preserving resources related to their history and culture, 
to highlight their contributions to the state, and to broaden 
the scope of their preservation efforts in Florida. 

Hispanic Resources 

Florida also has many National Register listings related 
to its Spanish heritage. Most of them are archaeological 
sites dating from the First Spanish Period (1513-1763), 
primarily consisting of the remains of shipwrecks of 
Spanish plate fleets or the 17th century Catholic missions 
that once spread from St. Augustine to Tallahassee. Most 
nineteenth-century Hispanic heritage sites relate to 
Spanish and Cuban cigar makers who were primarily in 
Key West and Tampa. Florida's modern Hispanic period 
is probably best represented by the Freedom Tower (El 
Refugio), a National Historic Landmark building in Miami 
that served Cuban refugees who fled Cuba beginning in 
1959. As the more recent Hispanic resources "come of 
age" this important aspect of Florida's history and heritage 
will be better represented in Florida's National Register 
listings. Awareness of Florida's Hispanic heritage has 
been enhanced with the recent publication of the Spanish 
Colonial Heritage Trail 




Florida transportation resources 

need constant attention, in terms of 

maintenance, or for necessary upgrades 

to meet the demands of a growing 

population. Street widening sometimes 

threatens historic commercial corridors 

(often in historic downtowns) of small communities, such 

as Milton in Santa Rosa County and Newberry in Alachua 

County. The Florida Department of Transportation 

(FDOT) has long been a strong partner in the effort to 

preserve Florida's historical resources while meeting its 

responsibility to ensure the safety of the state's travelers. 

In 2004, FDOT published a bridge survey; an update of it 

is in production. 

Since 2003, the FDOT has used a process designed to 
streamline the review of an increased level of service 
made possible through FDOT's funding of positions that 
are dedicated to the review of FDOT projects. As part of 
the ETDM process, the FDOT has also implemented 
the Environmental Screening Tool, an internet-accessible 
database, to facilitate and organize agency comments and 
consultation regarding cultural and historical resources 
throughout the planning process. 

Bridge of Lions, St. Augustine 
Courtesy Stacey Sathxer 

Initially termed "streamlining" in 
response to Section 1309 of the 
Transportation Equity Act for 
the 21st Century (TEA 21), the 
FDOT process redefines how the 
State of Florida will accomplish 
transportation planning and project 
development within its current 
statutes and regulations. The ETDM Process creates 
linkages between land use, transportation, environmental 
and cultural resource planning initiatives through early, 
interactive agency involvement, which facilitates improved 
decisions and greatly reduces the time, effort, and cost 
to effect transportation decisions. Efficiency is gained 
by two screening events and an efficient permitting and 
consultation process built into the current transportation 
planning and project development process. These 
screenings are performed by an Environmental Technical 
Advisory Team (ETAT).The ETAT consists of planning, 
consultation, and resource protection agencies participating 
in the program. 

Participation by the Division of Historical Resources is 
made possible through a series of three agreements executed 
with the FDOT, Florida Highway Administration, and 
the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation. These 



include a Master Agreement (MA), an Agency Operating 
Agreement (AOA), and a Funding Agreement (FA) 
which provides for three fulltime staff in the Divisions 
new Transportation Compliance Review Program that 
have the responsibility to coordinate transportation 
reviews within the agency and assure compliance with 
all applicable historic preservation regulations. DHR 
now provides an increased level of service made possible 
through these agreements. Our staff provides agency 
response to the transportation planning entities (the 
FDOT and the Metropolitan Planning Organization, or 
MPO). This response is advisory during the early phases 
of transportation planning and transitions as a project 
proceeds from planning to project development. The 
ETAT member's role then shifts to coordination within the 
agency to issue an opinion or conduct consultation should 
historic resources be affected by the proposed project. 

As part of the ETDM process, the FDOT has implemented 

an Internet-accessible interactive database tool called the 

Environmental Screening Tool (EST) to facilitate and 

organize agency comment and consultation regarding 

cultural and historic resources throughout the process. 

The Florida SHPO's review under this program has been 
highly effective and has resulted in the identification of 
resources that might otherwise have gone unnoticed. 
This ETDM Process creates linkages between land use, 
transportation, environmental, and cultural resource 
planning initiatives through early, interactive agency 
involvement, which facilitates improved decisions 
and greatly reduces the time, effort, and cost to effect 
transportation decisions. Participation by the Division 
of Historical Resources in this review process provides 
for three fulltime staff in the DHR's Transportation 
Compliance Review Program who have the responsibility 
to coordinate transportation reviews within the agency and 
assure compliance with all applicable historic preservation 
regulations. With formal participation by DHR beginning 
in October 2003, the Division has been able to provide an 
increased level of service, saving contractors time and money 
and better insuring the identification of important historical 
and archaeological resources that might otherwise have 
gone unnoticed. 

The state has an established Multiple Property Submission 
for Florida's Historic Railroad Resources, and another cover 
for canals and roads still in the process of development. 
The completion of that cover should be a goal within the 
next five years. 


Religious resources are usually included in community 
surveys, but a number of churches with architectural and/ 
or historical significance have been listed in the National 
Register or identified in one of the state's Heritage Trails 
(e.g., Black Heritage Trail and Jewish Heritage Trait). 
Religious facilities affiliated with other ethnic groups need 
to be identified and at least recorded in the Florida Master 
Site File. Cemeteries in Florida are protected by law, but 
there is no program to identify or protect them. There 
needs to be more public education concerning protections 
afforded cemeteries and human burials. Listings of 
religious-related resources in the past five years include: 
St. Ritas Colored Catholic Mission in New Smyrna 
Beach, Sacred Heart Catholic Church in Pensacola, the 
First Methodist Church in Oviedo, and the First Baptist 
Church in Boca Grande in Lee County, Church of the 
Good Shepherd Episcopal Church in Maitland, and 
Evergreen Cemetery in Jacksonville, as well as religious 
facilities included in districts. 

Troy Demps, Sacred Hart Singer with apprentice Willie Mills 
Florida Division of Historical Resources 




With over 8,000 statute miles of tidal shoreline, for 
thousands of years, Floridians have lived and worked on the 
coast, and have left a legacy of remains and reminders of 
our past. In 2000, the Bureau of Archaeological Research, 
with support from the Florida Department of Community 
Affairs, the Florida Coastal Management Program, and 
funding from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration, published Florida's Maritime Heritage 
Trail The trail is a series of six map-like brochures that 
focus on: Coastal Communities, Coastal Environments, 
Coastal Forts, Historic Ports, Historic Shipwrecks, and 
Historic Lighthouses. Some of these resources have been 
the focus of further study and are listed in the National 
Register of Historic Places. In 2002, a Multiple Property 
Submission cover (MPS) was created for Florida's 
Historic Lighthouses. Of the 30 lighthouses identified, 
over half have been listed in the National Register, some in 
cooperation with the United States Coast Guard. 

Numerous shipwrecks dating from early Spanish 
exploration, such as the Emanuel Point Shipwreck in 
Pensacola Bay and to nearly entire Spanish plate fleets 
that sank off the east coast on their way back to Spain, 
to more recent military vessels and freighters, have also 
been listed in the National Register. Some such as the 
City of Hawkinsville steamboat and Civil War transport 

steamboat Maple Leaf, are in rivers. Many of 
these resources are maintained as underwater 
preserves, accessible to scuba and skin divers, 
as well as virtual divers who visit the BAR's 
website, "Museums Under the Sea." More 
needs to be done to identify significant historical 
resources related to Florida's historic ports and 
coastal communities. 


Florida has been the site of numerous military 
operations over the course of its recorded 500-year 
history of European and American settlement, and 
includes archaeological sites or standing resources 
remaining from the American Revolution, Seminole 
Wars, Civil War, Spanish-American War, World 
Wars I and II, and even the Cold War. Florida s 
Maritime Heritage Trail features the state's historic 
coastal forts, such as Fort Jefferson at Dry Tortugas 
in the Florida Keys, Fort Zachary Taylor in Key West, 
Fort Clinch on Amelia Island, the remains of Fort 
St. Marcos de Apalache on the central north Gulf 
Coast, and Fort Barrancas in Pensacola. There are also 
heritage trail publications that identify Florida's Civil 
War and World War II resources. In addition to the 
Florida World War II Heritage Trail, an existing MPS 
for World War II sites is in place, and one for Seminole 

American Shoals Schooner, Florida Keys 
Florida Division of Historical Resources 

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USCG Cutter Ingham, now moored in Key West 

Courtesy U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Ingham Maritime Museum, 

photo by Andy Newman 

War resources is underway. Even so, more needs to be 
done to document our military history, including the 
clandestine efforts of the Cold War, many of which are 
just now coming to light. 

Recreation and Tourism 

Florida has been a place of wonder for people since the 
first explorers wrote of their experiences, beginning in 
the 16th century. Its allure remains today, and tourism 
is a vital part of the state's economy. 

Archaeological evidence shows that Florida's many 

natural springs have drawn people since prehistoric 

times (e.g., Little Salt Springs, Warm Mineral Springs, 

and Wakulla Springs). Florida's springs later became 

tourist attractions, drawing people who sought their 

"healing" waters. The remains of nineteenth and 

early twentieth-century spring houses attest to the 

popularity of this once- thriving industry (e.g., White 

Springs, Hampton Springs, Wakulla Springs, and 

Green Cove Springs). 

Many of Florida's "old Florida" attractions 
have vanished from the landscape in the wake 
of the opening of Disney World in 1971, and 
the construction of new highways that either 
destroyed or bypassed many old roadside 
attractions. Some of surviving "old time" 
attractions are now under the management 
of local governments, or have become state 
parks, such as Weeki Wachee Springs, located 
north of Tampa. In urban areas, hotels have 
often been demolished in order to meet 
modern standards of comfort. The City of 
Miami Beach, however, largely due to the 
federal income tax credit for rehabilitation, 
has become a world destination for its concentration of 
hotels, motels, and apartments designed in the Art Deco, 
Moderne, and more recently, Miami Modern styles. 

More efforts, such as the 2011 listing of the Parrot Jungle 
in the National Register of Historic Places, need to be 
focused on such historic tourism resources. Other types 
of recreational resources should also be identified, such as 
historic golf courses, jai-alai frontons, lawn bowling clubs, 
and racing facilities. 


Historically, there has been relatively little industry in 
Florida, as agriculture and tourism have long been the 
staples of Florida's economy. A few resources related to 
the timber and naval stores industry have been identified 
and listed in the National Register (e.g., Etna Turpentine 
Camp Archaeological Site). Evidence of the processing 
of indigo, rice, and sugar are present in the colonial 
archaeological record. More surveys need to be done to 
identify resources related to Florida industries, such as the 
abandoned shade tobacco barns of central north Florida 
and seafood processing facilities along Florida's coast, 
perhaps in conjunction with the Florida Folklife Program. 

As railroads and paved roads were built across the 

state, Florida became more and more accessible for 

new residents and visitors. Winter visitors soon 

became a major boon to the economy, and spas, 

resorts and special attractions became a regular 

part of the Florida experience. St. Augustine's 

Alligator Farm (listed in the National Register 

in 1992) is the longest-lived tourist attraction in 

the state, and St. Augustine continues to draw 

millions of tourists every year. 


The history of the state is also preserved in Florida's 
traditional culture or folklife. Florida folklife include 
ways of making objects, such as maritime and ranching 
equipment, domestic and decorative items, religious and 
festival arts, and musical instruments; beliefs and customs; 
traditional occupations; music and dance; celebrations; and 
narrative traditions. The individuals who practice these folk 



Demonstration by Junkanoo Near You, Orlando 
Florida Division of Historical Resources 

arts are often greatly admired in their communities. Their 
creative work facilitates the accomplishment of practical 
tasks, while expressing group values and aesthetics. 

The Florida Folklife Program is unique in that it is closely 
linked with the state historic preservation program rather 
than the state arts program. This relationship makes it 
particularly suited to helping us understand and appreciate 
our multicultural heritage both past and present. 

Several important places associated with Florida's diverse 
folk cultural heritage include Tarpon Springs, which has 
the world's largest concentration of Greeks outside of 
Greece; and fishing communities along Florida's Gulf 
and Atlantic coasts that contain historical resources 
demonstrating the commercial fishing industry's important 
role in Florida's development over the centuries. Cattle 

ranches provide an opportunity to recognize not only a 
significant type of rural landscape in Florida, but also a 
way of life that remains a vital part of the state's economy. 
Many immigrants, such as those from Cuba, Haiti, and 
other parts of the Caribbean basin; Latin America; and 
Asia continue to come to Florida. More work needs to 
be done to identify and evaluate their contributions to 
Florida's cultural heritage, past and present. 

As Florida's economy improves, it is anticipated that 
recordings in the Florida Master Site File and listings in 
the National Register will return to their usual levels, if not 
exceed them. Renewed efforts will likely result in an increase 
in the listings of prehistoric archaeological sites, mid- 
century architecture and development, cultural landscapes, 
and properties related to Florida's many cultural groups, 
with an emphasis on the diversity of Florida's resources as 




How This Plan was Developed 

Public Survey 

An online survey developed by the Division of Historical Resources staff was widely distributed over a period of several 
months. Over 250 completed surveys were received. Results from this survey supplemented the input of participants 
at six public meetings, and have been tabulated and included in the planning process. The survey conducted through 
the Survey Monkey website, was distributed through the Division of Historical Resources' web site, at public meetings, 
and as a tag on all Division emails. The online survey had 22 questions, with the last eleven dealing with demographic 
information about the respondent. The questions were a mixture of ranking, yes/no, agree/disagree, and open ended 
questions intended to give the respondents an opportunity to voice their opinions more clearly. 

Survey Results 

The survey included a question to determine what respondents considered the five most important issues concerning 
historic preservation in Florida. Twelve topics were suggested, with a blank left to indicate other topics not included in 
the list. Respondents were asked to pick only five topics, ranking them from 1 (most important of their five choices) to 5 
(least important of their five choices). All of the twelve topics were chosen by at least one respondent; as one respondent 
noted, "all of them are important." Taking into account the number of times a particular topic was chosen, as well as 
considering its assigned ranking, Survey Monkey assigned an average ranking. Based on those averages, the top five 
issues were: 

Development (avg. 3.58) (134 votes) 

Economics of Historic Preservation (avg. 3.47) (152 votes) 

Downtown Districts (avg. 3.20) (87 votes) 

Property Rights (avg. 3.14) (78 votes) 

Perception that Florida has no Historical Resources (avg. 2.98) (99 votes) 

Based only on the number of times an issue was picked as one of the respondents' top five issues, regardless of 
ranking, a slightly different list resulted: 

Economics of Historic Preservation (152 votes) (avg. 3.47) 

Historic Preservation Education (145 votes) (avg. 2.90) 

Development (134 votes) (avg. 3.58) 

Heritage Tourism (120 votes) (avg. 2.87) 

Perception that Florida has no Historical Resources (99 votes) (avg. 2.98) 

A comparison of the two lists shows agreement that Development, Economics of Historic Preservation, and the 
Perception that Florida has no Historical Resources are among the top five issues. Combining the lists results in 
a ranking of seven topics that are considered the most important ones facing Florida: 


Economics of Historic Preservation 

Downtown Districts 

Property Rights 

Perception that Florida has no Historical Resources 

Heritage Tourism 

Historic Preservation Education 

It is interesting to note that downtown districts and property rights scored highly, but were not 
prominently mentioned in written comments or at the public meetings. 




During April and May of 2011, a series of meetings was 
held across Florida to gather public input on the Statewide 
Comprehensive Historic Preservation Plan. Because 
of staff travel restrictions, for the first time in Florida's 
historic preservation planning process, a consultant was 
used to conduct public meetings and provide analysis. 
Approximately 100 individuals attended meetings hosted 
by Florida Public Archaeology Network regional offices 
in Tallahassee, Pensacola, St. Augustine, Cocoa, Fort 
Lauderdale and St. Petersburg. Stakeholders including 
professional preservationists, archeologists, historians, 
local government representatives, planning professionals, 
neighborhood preservation volunteers, community and 
statewide nonprofit organizations, and local residents had an 
opportunity to discuss successes, challenges, opportunities 
and concerns that will affect Florida's historic resources 
over the next five years. During each two-hour meeting, 
participants identified local and statewide preservation 
needs and opportunities and ranked them in order of 
priority. Jeannette Peters of Nonprofit Management 
Consulting LLC was contracted to facilitate the meetings. 
Individuals who were unable to attend the public meetings 
were encouraged to provide their comments and opinions 
by completing the online survey on historic preservation 
issues in Florida. 

How the Goals, Objectives and 
Strategies were Developed 

Attendees at the public meetings participated in a guided 
discussion designed to elicit opinions, concerns and 
opportunities about efforts in their communities and on 
the statewide level. Participants addressed the topic from 
the perspectives of the three overarching issues identified 
in the previous comprehensive plan, Planning for the 
Past: Preserving Florida's Heritage, 2006-2010. Those 
issues were: Historic Preservation Education, Public 
Policy to Support Historic Preservation, and Economic 
Development through Historic Preservation. They also 
discussed the previous plans effectiveness on the state and 
local level. 

Although this process triggered extensive and sometimes 
passionate discussion among the attendees, due to time 
constraints, comments had to be limited to identifying and 
capturing responses. Local stakeholders were encouraged 
to use these discussions as a jumping-off point for further 

collaboration to address issues identified. The evaluation 
process identified general consensus in each of the assessment 
areas. Results are summarized on the following pages. 


Although each of the six regions that hosted Public Input 
Meetings identified unique assets and issues, analysis of 
meeting outcome data shows distinct trends in areas 
of concern across the state. Two areas in particular were 
identified in each of the six regions and received very high 
priority from meeting participants. 

Communicating with Policy Makers: One specific 
topic was identified as an area of concern across all six 
regions of the state and received the highest number 
of overall votes from meeting participants: the need to 
better educate policy makers - legislators, county and city 
commissioners, statewide agency heads and local officials 
- about the benefits and impact of historic preservation on 
Florida's economy and way of life. In every region, meeting 
participants highlighted the need to develop more effective 
ways to bring the message to local and state lawmakers. 
Participants identified the need to frequently adapt 
strategies to deal with constantly changing state and local 
administrations, and the need to plan activities around the 
political cycle as newcomers are elected or appointed 

Communicate Historic Preservation's Economic 
Impact More Effectively: Also identified as a chief area 
of concern by all six regions, and receiving the second- 
highest number of votes in the meetings, was the issue 
of developing better ways to measure the dollar impact 
of historic preservation. Meeting participants felt that 
preservationists should work to publicize the fact that 
historic preservation activities in Florida, including the 
rehabilitation of historic buildings, heritage tourism, the 
operation of history museums, and activities generated by 
Florida Main Street programs contribute some $6.3 billion 
annually to the state. Participants expressed concern that 
policy makers "are hearing it, but they're not getting it." 
Across the regions, preservationists expressed a desire for a 
statewide reporting system that could be implemented to 
capture the dollar impact of their efforts, with analysis of 
the data on the state level to help make a case for expanding 
funding for historical resources. 



Other Highly Ranked Issues from the 
Public Meetings 

• State and Local History Should Be More Effectively 
Taught in the Schools: Local preservation groups could 
partner with schools to develop local curricula, which could 
include field trips to local historic sites with hands-on 
experiences like working on a cracker farm or participating 
in an archeological dig. 

There is little to no Florida history being taught in the public 
school systems. 

If you want to help preservation there needs to be education 
starting in grade schools. There is no such education whether 
its about Florida prehistory or preservation. 

I think we should go to the schools more. Work through the 
children more, making history exciting and fun. 
-Comments from survey 

• Schools could find ways to link historic preservation 
studies and activities to the Florida Department of 
Education's Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test 
(FCAT) and new End Of Course Tests. 

• Local training on economic development topics 
is needed: Participants expressed a strong need for 
community-based technical assistance workshops on 
economic development/preservation topics like financing. 
Neighborhoods need rehabilitation loans and grants and 
training on how to access these resources. 

• Develop strategies to draw visitors deeper into local 
history and develop more local and statewide heritage 
tourism: Find ways to link historical markers to more in- 

depth exploration of local sites and resources; develop local 
history trails and cross-promote between local and regional 
sites. Participants were eager to learn more about the 
University of West Florida's Next Exit History program, a 
web-based resource which might be a model for statewide 
location of historic properties near highway exits. 

• Provide more opportunities for state/local interaction: 

Meeting participants value and rely on the assistance and 
support of the state Division of Historical Resources 
(DHR), and are eager to interact with each other in a 
noncompetitive forum. 

Maybe more workshops or just programs periodically where 
people involved in historic preservation or staff members like 
myself can get together and discuss various topic or share ideas 
on how problems were solved or how people are promoting 
historic preservation. These kinds of programs are very 

-Comment from survey 

• Participants hope that DHR will increase opportunities 
for more onsite or face-to-face meetings. Annual or 
semiannual public input meetings similar in format to 
the Historic Preservation Plan public input meetings 
were requested, as well as increased opportunities for 
state/local partnerships. 

• Make Certified Local Government (CLG) status more 
meaningful: Meeting participants felt that the Certified 
Local Government program is an effective way to 
bring historic preservation to the attention of county 
and municipal policy-makers, but felt that the program 
could be more effective. They suggested that CLGs 
should have a periodic review and recertification process, 
along with a forum for public concerns/complaints, to 



hold local governments more accountable for historic 
preservation. It would also be helpful to develop a way 
for CLGs to document their impact on preservation 
and the local economy. 

• Using the Five Year Historic Preservation Plan as a 
management tool: Meeting participants noted that the 
2006-2011 Comprehensive Plan was very broad in scope, 
and that the previous plan did not contain measurable 
objectives. They felt that updating the plan for 2012- 
2016 provides an excellent opportunity to craft a plan 
that could be more meaningful to all stakeholders, with 
specific, time-defined performance targets. They hope to 
see strategies and action plans that are implementable, 
with more accountability for the plan from both local 
organizations and from DHR. Participants felt that the 
plan should be discussed and reviewed frequently as a 
management tool to improve effectiveness and impact of 
historic preservation efforts. 

• An examination of the input received from written 
comments and from the regional meetings indicates that 
the respondents desire more technical information and 
training for local preservationists to empower them to 
better address preservation needs, particularly at the local 
level. Many of the suggested strategies, therefore, fall under 
an overarching need for better education and outreach 
across the board, from children and homeowners, to policy 
makers and business owners. One of the best ways to 
achieve this is to improve communication and cooperation 
among Florida's wide array of preservation partners to 
reach the common goal of promoting and improving 
historic preservation in Florida. 

Timeframe of the Plan 
and Revisions 

This preservation plan (2012-2016) will provide 
statewide direction on how to best preserve 
Florida's archaeological and historical resources 
over the next five years. It will be revised and 
updated in 2017. 

The plan will be posted on the Divisions website,, with notifications sent to 
public and academic libraries, local governments, 
and key partners. During the next five years, 
annual regional meetings of the state's preservation 
partners will be conducted to gather updates on the 
progress made in achieving the defined 2012-2016 

Making historic preservation a fundamental part of 
our lives and communities will give a greater sense of 
who we are as Floridians, whether our families have 
been here for generations or we have just arrived in the 
Sunshine State. The goals and objectives included in 
this plan reflect the issues and opportunities available 
to Floridians as they plan for the preservation of our 
cultural heritage in the 21st Century. 

Jack Keroac House, Orlando 
Florida Division of Historical Resources 

Courtesy of the Orange County 
Regional History Center 



Palm Beach County Courthouse, West Palm Beach 
Florida Division of Historical Resources 


Vision for Historic Preservation in Florida 

Building upon the worldwide recognition gained through the Viva Florida 500 commemoration of Ponce de 

Leoris 1513 landing in Florida, over the next five years, Floridians and visitors to the state will become 

increasingly aware of Florida's long, rich, and important history that includes the establishment of the first 

permanent European settlements in North America. Floridians, even if new to the state, will be inspired 

and take pride in Florida's heritage. They will develop an effective, broadly based, statewide network of well 

informed historic preservation-minded people. Property owners, government officials at all levels, developers 

and other professionals will wisely steward Florida's significant prehistoric, historic, and folk resources as 

highly valued assets. The state's present-day cultural, economic, and environmental well-being will be 

enhanced as Florida's heritage is preserved for future generations. 



Goals, Objectives, and Suggested E - Interface with university/college history and historic 

preservation programs (e.g., develop internship 


GOAL 1: Increase and Widen Awareness of Florida 
History and Engagement in Historic Preservation 

Objective 1-A: Develop more widespread popular 
support for historic preservation in Florida 


F. Continue to work with "Geocaching Society" to 
develop local history geocaching trails 

G. Increase capacity of the Mission San Luis summer 
camp program 

H. Provide Mission San Luis summer camp opportunities 

A. Place more historic preservation information in local c j • -i j 1 -u ^ 1 1 1 1 • 

r tor underprivileged children through scholarships 

and statewide media 

The History in Historic Preservation means there should be/ 

B. Increase outreach through the Internet, webinars and 7 , 7 . ^ ^. .^ TT . ^ ^ M ^ 

° could be more interaction with History Departments across 

other web-based media 

the state, particularly in the state colleges and universities. 

There are hundreds of trained historians already on the public 

C. Support community based programs such as Florida 77 . ^ ^ ^ rT ^i •_/ 

rr J r ° payroll in the state of r londa. 

Main Street 

Create interest with younger people by becoming savvy with 

D. Increase technical and grant assistance for developing . 7 ^ 7 . » - . 7 .,. ^ 7 - . , . . 

° r o social networking ana their ability to reach this demographic. 

educational and promotional products such as r> r 

r r -Comments rrom survey 

brochures, interpretive signage, pamphlets, and school 

Objective 1-C: Increase the participation of Florida's 

ethnic communities in Historic Preservation 

Publicity y publicity , publicity 

A. Identify and provide greater outreach to groups or 

I don t hear enough about historic preservation in the media. ^ . r-m -j > ^1 • 

6 r representatives or Florida s ethnic communities 

Stronger media attention on a state level (and national level) ^ TJ -r ^1 ^ 1 u • t^i -j > 

6 ' y r>. Identity resources that hold importance to Florida s 

would pave the way for individual communities. < . 

r yy ethnic communities 

Afo/ enough advertising/promotion of what has been done ^ ^ . i . . r -,. . i . ^ r 

6 ^ r ^ C. Provide opportunities tor traditional artists rrom 

and what is planned. The media is not involved enough. .^. .j ^-r j ^i i ^i t^i -j r n it 

r d communities identified through the Florida .bolkiire 

-Comments from survey ^ i v u c _ ^ . r, 

y Program to publically perform or present their crarts, 

skills, and traditions. 
Objective 1-B: Engage Florida youth in historic 

P Objective 1-D: Increase awareness of Florida's 

A. Integrate local history into local school curricula 

historical resources and preservation successes and 

B. Develop a statewide Young Preservationists A ^ -.. i . « 

r & A. Create media kit templates 

Program (e.g., youth summits and service-learning 

" B. Develop a policy for the Division of Historical 

Resources' use of social media 

C. Establish Historic Preservation Girl Scout and Boy 

° C. Create a historic preservation speakers bureau to 

provide a centralized resource to identify available 

D. Establish a Historic Preservation prize in the Florida t i • ^ • 

r speakers on historic preservation topics. 

History Fair 


D. Create and/or publicize more statewide and local F. Hold community workshops for home and business 

owners on economic development and historic 
preservation topics, such as repair/maintenance, 
appropriate restoration, architectural styles, and 

historic theme trails 

E. Create state heritage tours showcasing successful 
grant-funded sites 

F. Increase cross-promotion of historic sites within 
individual communities as well as statewide 

G. Increase promotion of heritage tourism within Florida 
and out-of-state 

Td like to see more promotion of existing preservation 
resources and more cooperation/interaction with other possibly 
interested groups, such as ones established for enjoyment of 
the outdoors — hiking, kayaking, etc. It might also be good 
to get away from the terminology of "historic resources" and 
"archaeological resources, " since that can convey an image of 
something to be consumed or used. 

Media/Advertising campaigning is needed in all aspects not 
just for tourism purposes. 

-Comments from survey 

GOAL 2: Increase Technical Knowledge of Historic 
Preservation Among Those in a Position to Impact 
Archaeological and Historical Resources 

Objective 2-A: Increase the knowledge and awareness 
of the positive impacts and financial and environmental 
benefits of archaeological and historical preservation 

A. Further develop and publicize the educational 
resources available from the Florida Trust for Historic 

B. Develop local policies and programs that encourage 
and provide incentives for redevelopment that 
incorporates historic preservation 

C. Develop more education programs and materials for 
developers and real estate professionals 

D. Provide training and online resources for project 
managers and developers on how to identify and 
report archaeological issues 

E. Create instructional materials to enhance 
understanding of the archaeological and historic 
preservation compliance and review process 

G. Create 5-10 minute training presentations on key 
topics to educate property owners on preservation 
issues such as property rights, benefits of historic 
preservation, and best practices 

H. Promote rehabilitation and reuse of existing facilities, 
structures, and buildings as an alternative to new 

I. Promote existing financial benefits and technical 

More emphasis and outreach needs to be done on: the recent 
past within the context of Florida's short development history, 
at least in South Florida - homeowner education at all levels 
- realtor education at all levels. 

. . Creative thinking and thinking outside the box is critical. I 
think looking at how the private sector markets and brands can 
provide useful information, as can seeking more partnerships 
outside the "traditional" preservation realm. 

LACK OF EDUCATION!!!!! People think that new is 
better no matter what. 

We need to educate on options and incentives so owners keep 
their contributing structure/home. 

-Comments from survey 

Objective 2-B: Provide training and technical assistance 
to local governments and other state agencies in their 
efforts to preserve, protect, and promote their historical 

A. Present workshops and/or webinars on developing 
disaster preparedness plans customized to the needs 
of local sites, providing workshop kits that can be 
presented by local agencies and organizations 

B. Create disaster preparedness and mitigation training 
videos that can be downloaded for local historic 
preservation agencies, organizations, sites, and 
property owners 



C. Offer technical assistance and economic incentive 
programs to encourage the rehabilitation and 
preservation of historic structures and their sensitive 
adaptive use 

D. Provide technical assistance to local governments and 
the public on local and other incentive programs that 
encourage investment in historic private homes and 
commercial buildings 

E. Increase the number of programmatic agreements 
with CLGs, and increase the number of agreements 
that include archaeological resources 

F. Provide SHPO training to the CLGs to conduct 
Section 106- and Chapter 267-related reviews as is 
already provided by current HUD agreements. 

G. More education is needed on the local level to allay 
the fear of so many that preservation is the enemy of 
property rights. The citizenry needs to understand the 
value of historic preservation. 

[We need to] get the message out that the home [you re] living 
in today was built and lived in by other people before you. 
Someday i( you will" not be living here! Someone else will 
be there. Preserve it for generations to come. [We need] 
"Stronger" town codes to maintain condition of property! If 
help is needed, (monetary) help with costs. 

There needs to be better understanding of local ordinances. 
-Comments from survey 

GOAL 3: Improve Historic Preservation Advocacy 
Beginning at the Grassroots Level 

A. Provide training on effective public advocacy, providing 
technical assistance workshop kits so that attendees 
hold their own workshops in their communities. 

B. Develop economic, cultural, and lifestyle impact 
measures for Florida historic preservation activities, 
using the Florida Main Street Programs model for 
collecting data from across the state, and provide 
training on how to use the system. 

We must do a better job educating the legislators on the 
importance and wide spread economic impacts these [grant] 
projects, and their funding, have on the residents and visitors 
of this state. 

Most of the programs available for raising awareness of 
historic preservation in Florida are professionals speaking to 
professionals (e.g.,, Florida Trust, conferences) or professionals 
speaking to aware and interested public (e.g., FPAN). The 
impact and the challenges are local. I believe there will be 
greater success with preservation initiatives if they go further 
at identifying their audience and evaluating their impact at 
this level and by getting buy in from non-preservationists. 
Environmentalists have done a better job of convincing the 
public and legislative representatives of the importance of 
preserving, protecting and enhancing natural resources. 
Preservationists should look at their philosophy of educating 
the public and evaluate it against a more proven track record. 
-Comments from survey 

GOAL 4: Increase the Diversity of Historic 
Preservation Funding Sources 

A. Seek additional grant funding opportunities through 
corporate foundations, private foundations, and 
federal sources. 

B. Engage and educate local decision makers and donors 
to support historic preservation 

People are willing to pull money out of their pockets if they see 
how they can get involved. 

I would like more opportunities to get involved in historic 

-Comments from survey 

GOAL 5: Improve Networking Among Florida's 
Preservation Partners 

A. Develop, update, and maintain a database of historic 
preservation advocates 

B. Link Florida historic preservation stakeholders 
through social media and email 

C. Further develop a "Historic Preservation Yellow 
Pages" database of craftsmen, architects, and other 
service providers skilled in appropriate rehabilitation 
and restoration methods, and Cultural Resource 
Management firms 

D. Hold annual regional meetings for local and regional 
groups, organizations, government agencies and 



individuals to provide an opportunity to share training C. Proactively increase the annual number of new 
and resources, engage in joint planning, or present Certified Local Governments and provide more 

reports on successful projects and best practices training for all local governments 

E. Promote use of the DHR's website, www.flheritage. 
com, as a central website for preservation in Florida 

[A failure is] the lack of development of strong partnerships 
and networks of various disciplines and entities to support 
statewide preservation efforts, advocacy and education. 

Marketing, branding, and a strong media presence, especially 
social media, are very important!! 

-Comments from survey 

GOAL 6: Take Advantage of the Viva Florida 500 
Commemoration to Highlight all Aspects of Florida's 
Historical Resources 

D. Improve coordination with government agencies at 
all levels whose programs affect historic and cultural 

E. Provide technical assistance to local governments and 
other state agencies in their efforts to preserve, protect, 
and promote their historical resources 

F. Promote and assist the preservation of Florida's 
cultural heritage through a continuing program of 
identification, evaluation, and recognition 

G. Increase digitization and dispersal of historic property 
information via the Florida Master Site File (FMSF) 

A. Assist in publicizing the Viva Florida 500 campaign 
by distributing educational and promotional materials 

H. Incorporate local inventories and designations into the 

B. Issue more press releases about historic preservation 
activities and issues 

C. Support and link with local organizations' heritage 
tourism events and activities in all 67 counties, and 
promote use of the official Viva Florida 500 event 

D. Provide links to historical contexts and descriptions of 
architectural styles used in Florida on the Division of 
Historical Resources website 

GOAL 7: Expand and Strengthen the Division of 
Historical Resources' Efforts to Identitify and Protect 
Florida's Archaeological, Historical, and Cultural 

Objective 7-A: Strengthen programs conducted as the 
State Historic Preservation Office, Bureau of Historic 

A. Streamline State Historic Preservation Office 

B. Proactively increase the annual number of National 
Register listings and National Historic Landmark 

I. Increase the integration of local historic preservation 
goals into local comprehensive land use plans and local 
zoning ordinances 

J. Coordinate with other planning efforts in 
transportation, recreation, and land-use plans 

Objective 7-B: Strengthen other preservation programs 
conducted by the Bureau of Historic Preservation 

A. Proactively increase the number of Florida Historical 

B. Enhance accessibility of Florida Historical Marker 

C. Increase public awareness and accessibility to Florida's 
folk heritage 

D. Proactively increase the number of new Florida Main 
Street Communities 

E. Increase local economic development through cultural 
and historical grants 



Objective 7-C: Strengthen programs conducted by the C. Expansion of Mission San Luis programs 

Bureau of Archaeological Research 

A. Provide better curation of Florida's large collection of 
archaeological artifacts 

B. Develop a new archaeological artifact collections 

C. Make archaeological collections more accessible 

D. Expand the Division of Historical Resources' 
relationship with the Florida Public Archaeology 

E. Implement contemporary conservation practices and 
techniques to archaeological conservation lab 

to benefit public, diversify to include 
traditional and historical periods, increase 
marketing of the site 

D. Implement policies for the Mission San 
Luis Site to become financially sustainable 
through outside funding sources 

E. Secure the state acquisition of approved 
Florida Forever land projects that include 
historical and cultural resources 

F Work more closely with Water Management 
Districts to actively preserve and make 
historical/cultural resources under their care 
accessible to the public 

F Increase the protection of Florida's submerged cultural G. Begin consolidating the Divisions archaeological 

resources through the expansion of programs such as collections and maintain in a centralized facility 
underwater preserves 

H. Promote and expand accessibility and 

G. Expand Archaeological Resource Management interpretation oftheDe Soto Winter Encampment 

(ARM) training on a regional basis Site 

Objective 7-D: Strengthen Division of Historical 
Resources Programs, Division Director's Office 

A. Continue to improve and expand the Division of 
Historical Resources website 

B. Complete the rehabilitation of the Grove and open it 
as a history museum 

I. Establish a not-for-profit Citizen Support 
Organization (CSO) to support the programs and 
operations of DHR 

J. Interpret and manage sites and structures the 
DHR maintains. Provide dedicated funding for the 
resources maintained by the DHR. Provide better 
stewardship for state-owned historic properties 
managed by DHR 

The Lightner Museum, St. Augustine 



A Brief Timeline of Florida History 

(Items in orange indicate events in Florida's historic preservation history.) 

10,000+ B.C. Hunting and gathering Paleoindians present in Florida, as at Warm Mineral Springs in 

Sarasota Co. and Page/Ladson Site in Jefferson Co. 

9000 B.C. Glaciers began to melt and sea levels began to rise 

7500 B.C. Early Archaic Period, people hunted and gathered but began to gather near wetlands 

6000-5000 B.C. Human burials placed under water, as at Windover Site in Brevard Co., also evidence of 
manufacture of cordage and fabrics 

5000 B.C. First semi-permanent settlements in Florida 

5000-3000 B.C. Middle Archaic sites along St. Johns River, and along Hillsborough River north of Tampa, 
modern environments established 

3000 B.C. Late Archaic, marked by shell middens on coasts and rivers 

2000 B.C. First fired clay pottery 

500 B.C. Mound building, as at Crystal River Indian Mounds in Citrus Co. 

A.D. 700 Beginning of tribes and chiefdoms eventually met by the Spaniards: Timucuans, Apalachee, 

Calusa, Tequesta 

1498-1502 Europeans first saw Florida coast 

1513 Juan Ponce de Leon landed north of Cape Canaveral and named Florida 

1528 Panfilo de Narvaez visited Tampa and Tallahassee areas 

1539 Hernando de Soto landed in Tampa Bay area and wintered in Tallahassee while on trek 

throughout the Southeast 

1559 Tristan de Luna established a colony on the shores of Pensacola Bay, abandoned two years later 

1562 Jean Ribault searched for a site for a French Huguenot colony near mouth of St. Johns River 

1564 Laudonniere returned to mouth of St. Johns to establish a French colony and built Fort 
Caroline, where first recorded birth of a white child in North America took place 

1565 Pedro Menendez established St. Augustine, the first permanent settlement by Europeans 
in North America 

1570 First citrus groves in Florida planted in St. Augustine 

1586 Sir Francis Drake sacked and burned St. Augustine 

1590 Franciscan missionaries active near St. Augustine 

1603 Mission chain started along coast and across peninsula toward the Apalachee 


1650 Missions extended to the Apalachicola River 

1650 Fort Matanzas built 

1672-1698 Castillo de San Marcos completed 

1702-1704 British raided Spanish settlements and destroy missions 

1715 Spanish Plate Fleet wrecked off southeast Florida coast 

1733 Spanish Plate Fleet wrecked off Florida Keys 

1738-1740 Fort Mose established, first legally sanctioned free black community in what is 
now the United States 

1740 British invaded Florida, native populations diminished 

1763 Treaty of Paris ended French and Indian War, Spain ceded Florida to Britain 

1768 British sugar, citrus, rice, and indigo plantations established 

1768 Turnbull Colony at New Smyrna established, but abandoned in 1777 

1770s Creeks from Georgia and Alabama, later called Seminoles, entered Florida 

1774 Naturalist William Bartram described archaeological sites like Mt. Royal 

1776-81 Florida colonies remained loyal to Britain during the American Revolution 

1783 Florida returned to Spain, in exchange for Bahamas and Gibraltar 

1783-1821 Border disputes between Spain and United States 

1810 British occupied Pensacola, but were driven out by Andrew Jackson in 1813 

1817-1818 First Seminole War 

1821 United States acquired Florida from Spain by treaty 

1824 Tallahassee established as territorial capital 

1830s Steamboats brought settlers 

1834-1837 Florida's first railroads began operation 

1835-1842 Second Seminole War, first reservations established 

1845 Florida admitted to the Union as a state 

1856-1858 Third Seminole War ceased, ending Wars of Indian Removal east of the Mississippi River 

1858 Florida Historical Society founded 

1861-1865 Civil War, Florida was part of the Confederacy, Battle of Olustee fought in 1864 

18 60s -70s Jeffries Wyman determined archaeological shell heaps were made by humans 



1880s Development of new industries: railroads, citrus, phosphate, timber, truck farming, and 

1887 Eatonville, oldest intact incorporated black community in the United States, established 

1890s Clarence Moore excavated archaeological sites throughout Florida 

1894-95 Freezes destroyed citrus crops, and citrus cultivation moves south 

1896 Frank Cushing discovered Key Marco Site in Collier County 

1898 Spanish- American War; Florida was major embarkation point 

1900s Greek immigrants arrived and settled mostly in Tarpon Springs 

1901 Great Fire destroyed downtown Jacksonville 

1905 State University System created 

1905-1912 Construction of Henry Flagler's Overseas Railroad to Key West 

1914 Pensacola Naval Air Station established 

1914 First regularly scheduled commercial airline between two US. cities, St. Petersburg and 
Tampa, established 

1917-1918 World War I, Florida was site for military training and shipbuilding 

1918 First international flight, Key West to Havana 

1924 Castillo de San Marcos was designated a National Memorial 

1925-1926 Early 20th Century Florida Land Boom 

1927 First international air mail service, Pan American flights from Key West to Havana, Cuba 

1928 Devastating hurricane hit South Florida 

1928 Tamiami Trail, from Miami to the Gulf Coast, officially opened 

1930 Eastern Airlines started Miami to New York service 

1935 Overseas Railroad converted to highway 

1937 Amelia Earhart took off from Miami on fatal round-the-world flight 

1941-1945 World War II, Florida again was a major site for military training and shipbuilding 

1 946 Florida Park S ervice established 

1946 First State Archaeologist appointed 

1947 Florida Anthropological Society founded 
1950 Florida has 20th largest state population 

1950 First American rocket launch from Cape Canaveral 




1952 First Florida Folk Festival held 

1954-60 School desegregation and civil rights tensions 

1955 Florida Turnpike authorized 

1958 Free World's first earth satellite, Explorer I, launched from Cape Canaveral 

1959-1961 First wave of Cuban immigrants 

1961 Junior College System established 

1961 First American manned space travel, from Cape Canaveral 

1962 Cuban Missile Crisis 
1965-1973 Second wave of Cuban immigrants 
1966 National Historic Preservation Act passed 
1966 First State Historic Preservation Officer appointed 

1966 First Florida properties listed in the National Register of Historic Places 

1967 The Florida Historic Resources Act passed 
1967 State Archives officially established 
1967 Florida Department of State given historic preservation responsibilities 

1969 Apollo 11, launched from Kennedy Space Center, landed first men on the moon 

1970 Florida Master Site File begun 

1971 Museum of Florida History chartered 
1971 Disney World opened 

1973 Research and Conservation Laboratory for artifacts established 

1977 Museum of Florida History opened in the R.A. Gray Building, Tallahassee 

1978 Florida Trust for Historic Preservation founded 

1978 Florida's first project under Federal Tax Credit Program completed 

1979 Florida Archaeological Council founded 

1979 Conservation and Recreation Lands FCT Fund (CARL) established 

1979 Florida Folklife Program established 

1980 First State Folklorist appointed 

1980 Third wave of Cuban immigrants, the "Mariel Boatlift," brought 120,000 Cubans to Key West 
1980s Rehabilitation of Art Deco hotels in Miami Beach began 

1981 The first space shuttle, Columbia, launched from Kennedy Space Center 


19 80s -90s Political unrest in Central and South America and the Caribbean leads to major influx of 

immigrants to South Florida 

1982 Five-year restoration of the Old Capitol to its 1902 appearance completed 

1983 Florida Folklife Apprenticeship Program started 

1983 State Historic Preservation Grants-In-Aid Program started, evolves into nation's 

largest program in 1990s 

1985 Florida Main Street Program established 

1985 Local Government Comprehensive Planning and Growth Management Act requires 

local plans, including identification and preservation of historic resources 

1985 Florida Folk Heritage Awards Program established 

1986 Miami became Florida's first Certified Local Government 

1986 Florida Historical Resources Act created Division of Historical Resources 

1987 Florida Underwater Preserve program established 

1987 Archaeologists uncovered the first evidence of De Soto's 1539 winter encampment in 


1990 Florida has the 4th largest state population in the United States. 

1992 Hurricane Andrew hits South Florida 

1992 Emanuel Point Shipwreck, from the 1559 Luna expedition, discovered 

1993 Florida Heritage Education Program started 

1993 First issue of Florida Heritage magazine published, renamed Florida History & the 
Arts in 2000 

1994 Florida Historic Marker Program re-authorized and enhanced 
1997 DeLand received Great American Main Street Award 

2000 Presidential election put world focus on Florida 

2000 Newnan's Lake Canoes (largest known collection of prehistoric canoes) discovered 

2001 Florida Historical Commission created (Chapter 2001-199, s. 267.0612, Florida Statutes) 
2001 Florida Forever created 

2004 Florida Public Archaeology Network created 

2004-05 Major hurricanes (Charley, Frances, Ivan, Jeanne, Dennis, Katrina, and Wilma) struck 


2006 Mission San Luis received Presidential Award 

2007 History & the Arts ceased publication due to budget cuts 

2007 Eight regional offices for Florida Public Archaeology Network (FPAN) established 










Crash of the early 21st century Florida Land Boom, resulting in major state 
budget deficits and the cutting back of state and local preservation programs 

Elimination of DHR regional offices 

Florida State Folklorist position re-established after being eliminated in 2009 

Gulf Oil Spill further impacted state economy 

End of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral 

Community Planning Act shifts many review responsibilities of state projects 
to local governments 

Miami Circle Park dedicated 

Ft. Pierce received Great American Main Street Award 

The Grove restoration began 

Governor Rick Scott appointed Florida Department of State as lead agency for 
Viva Florida 500 

Frank Lloyd Wright designed Florida Southern College Historic District 
designated as a National Historic Landmark 

Commemoration of the 500th Anniversary of Ponce De Leon's arrival in Florida 




Bureau of Economic and Business Research, College of Business Administration. University of Florida. 
2010 Florida Statistical Abstract. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2010. 

Community Planning Act. Florida Statutes, 2011 Chapter 139. 

Davis, T. Frederick. History of Juan Ponce de Leon's Voyages to Florida, Source Records. Jacksonville, 
Florida: n.p., ca.1935. 

"Disaster Manual' a Winner!" Foresight, Quarterly Newsletter of 1000 Friends of Florida. Vol. 18, Number 
1 (Spring 2005):13. 

Economic Impacts of Historic Preservation in Florida. Prepared for the Florida Department of State, 
Division of Historical Resources. Prepared by Center for Governmental Responsibility, University 
of Florida College of Law and the Center for Urban Policy Research, Rutgers University, the 
Florida FCT for Historic Preservation, 2010. 

Estabrook, Richard, RPA; Dr. Amy Mitchell Cook; and Dr. Delia Scott-Ireton, RPA, Dr. William B. Lees, 
RPA, Principal Investigator. "Local Government Preservation Program Directory." Prepared for 
the Florida Trust for Historic Preservation by the Florida Public Archaeology Network, Pensacola, 
Florida, 2007. Available online 
REPORT%20revision%201.pdf (accessed 11/28/2011). 

Ewen, Charles R. and John H. Hann. Hernando De Soto among the Apalachee: the Archaeology of the 
First Winter Encampment. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1998. 

"First Annual Report on the Economic Impact of the Federal Historic Tax Credit." Prepared for the 
Historic Tax Credit Coalition by the Center for Urban Policy Research, Rutgers University, March 
2010, vv^ 

Florida Department of Environmental Protection. Office of Environmental Services, Division of State 
Lands. Florida Forever Five Year Plan, May 2011, 

Florida Department of State. Long- Range Program Plan Fiscal Year 2011-2016, http://floridafiscalportal. 

Florida Tourism and Historic Sites: a study sponsored by Florida Department of State, Florida Department 
of Natural Resources, Florida Department of Commerce, and the National FCT for Historic 
Preservation. Tallahassee, 1988. 

Friends of Florida Main Street, Inc., compiler. 25th Anniversary Florida Main Street. Winter Haven, FL: 
Citibooks Promotion Magazine, 2010. 

Historic Preservation Fund Grants Manual. Chapter 6 Grant Assisted Program Activities, Section G. 
Historic Preservation Planning Program Area, October 1997. 


Hubbard, Valerie J. "Florida's New 'Community Planning Act.'" ICSC Legal Update Extra 
(August 2011), 

Johnston, Sidney. Florida Historic Black Public Schools, National Register of Historic Places 
Multiple Property Documentation Form. Prepared for the Florida Division of Historical 
Resources, Florida Department of State, 2003. Manuscript #12406, Florida Master Site 

Johnston, Sidney and Myles Bland. Florida Historic Black Public Schools, National Register of 
Historic Places Multiple Property Documentation Form (Amended). Prepared by Bland 
8c Associates, Inc., for the Florida Division of Historical Resources, Florida Department 
of State, 2011. Manuscript #18755, Florida Master Site File. 

Lambin, Jeanne M., compiler. "Public Workshop: Evaluating Cultural Resources from the Recent 
Past in Florida," a workshop held at the University of Florida, Gainesville, November 6-9, 

Mahon, John K. History of the Second Seminole War, 1835-1842. Revised Edition. Gainesville: 
University Presses of Florida, 1985. 

"More Than Orange Marmalade — A Statewide Comprehensive Historic Preservation Plan For 
Florida." September 1996. 

Morris, Allen Covington and Joan Lee Perry LeRoy Morris. The Florida Handbook. Tallahassee, 
Florida: The Peninsular Publishing Company, 2011. 

National Park Service, "Fort Matanzas National Monument: The American Period (1821-Present)," 

National Park Service "Fort Matanzas National Monument: the Restoration of Fort Matanzas," 

Rypkema, Donovan D. The Economics of Historic Preservation: A Community Leader's Guide. 
Washington, D.C.: National Trust for Historic Preservation, 2005. 

"Sustainability and Historic Preservation," an article containing excerpts from Donovan D. Rypkema's 
presentation, "Sustainability, smart Growth and Historic Preservation," given at the Historic 
Districts Council Annual Conference in New York City, on March 10, 2007. Accessed online July 
29, 2011 at, . 

Seminole Geography: Using GIS as a tool for Tribal Historic Preservation Offices, Presentation at the 
2008 ESRI International User Conference, San Diego, California 
library/userconf/proc08/papers/papers/pap_l 161.pdf 

State Comprehensive Plan. Florida Statutes, 2010 Chapter 187. 

Tebeau, Charlton W. A History of Florida. Coral Gables: University of Miami Press, 1971. 

"jViva Florida!: Marking 500 years of Spanish heritage," Forum, the Magazine of the Florida Humanities 
Council, Vol. XXXV, No. 3, Fall 2011. 



Useful Resources 

Best Management Practices: An Owner's Guide to Protecting Archaeological Sites, Florida Department 
of State, Division of Historical Resources, Bureau of Archaeological Research, Tallahassee, 2000. 

Cariseo, Mary Kay, "Wealth Is Created Locally." Florida Counties November/December 2000: 6. 

Cothran, Hank; David Mulkey; and Mary Helen Blakeslee. "Assistance of Florida's Rural Communities: 
The Rural Economic Development Initiative," University of Florida. Institute of Food and 
Agricultural Sciences. Web Site: 

Daniel, Christopher. "Have You Been Friended? Social Networking Sites and Preservation Commissions," 
The Alliance Review (January- February 2010): 8-10. 

Donaldson, Milford Wayne. "Get Youth Involved to Build a Better Preservation Ethic - and Nation," The 
Alliance Review (May-June 2011): 6-9. 

Florida's Heritage Resource Directory 2001, Florida FCT for Historic Preservation, Inc., Tallahassee, 2001. 

Florida Tourism Industry Marketing Corporation. In It to Win It: Florida Tourism 1997-1998 Marketing 
Plan 1997. 

Jenkins Appraisal Services, Inc. A Summary Report Concerning the Impact of Landmarking on Residential 
Property Values, Palm Beach, Florida. West Palm Beach, 1997. 

McGlone, Ann. "Saving a Threatened Resource: Ten Essential Lessons," The Alliance Review (July- 
August 2007): 10-13. 

Meeks, Stephanie K. "Sustaining the Future." National Trust for Historic Preservation, May 16, 2011 

National Alliance of Preservation Commissions. The Alliance Review, special issues: 
Partnerships for Powerful Preservation (September- October 2008) 
Demolition by Neglect (May-June 2007) 
Education a& Outreach: Proactive Preservation (July- August 2007) and (May-June 2011) 

National Trust for Historic Preservation, compiler. Responding to the Economic Downturn issue of Forum 
Journal (Summer 2009, Vol. 23, No. 04.). 

National Trust for Historic Preservation, compiler. Positioning Preservation in a Green World issue of 
Forum Journal (Spring 2009, Vol. 23, No. 03). 

Patterson, Stacy. "Education and Outreach Planning for Preservation Commissions,"The Alliance Review 
(July -August 2007): 4-9. 

Post, Kerri L., "Tourism Works For All Of Florida." Florida Counties November/December 2000: 8-11. 

Starr, Eileen. "Tax Increment Financing: A Cautionary Tale," The Alliance Review (January- February 
2010): 4-6. 

Terrick, Dawn "Heritage Tourism — Reaping Rewards from the Past." Preservation Today Spring 2001, 
Dade Heritage FCT, Miami, Florida, 2001. 


Useful Links 

Advisory Council on Historic Preservation 

Florida Office of Cultural and Historical Programs 
(with links to the Division of Historical Resources 
and the Bureau of Historic Preservation) 

Florida Department of Community Affairs 

Florida Department of Transportation 

Florida Forever land acquisition program 


Florida African American Heritage Preservation 


Florida Public Archaeology Network 
www. flpublicarchaeology. org 

Florida State Parks 

Florida Trust for Historic Preservation 

National Alliance of Preservation Commissions 

National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places 
www. cr. nps .gov/nr 

National Park Service, Links to the Past 
www. cr. nps .gov 

National Park Service, Heritage Preservation Services 
(Preservation Planning and Tax Act Programs) 
www. cr. nps .gov/hps 

National Trust for Historic Preservation 

National Trust Main Street Center 
www. mainstreet . org 

1000 Friends of Florida 

University of West Florida Next Exit 
History Program 

National Park Service Gullah/Geechee Cultural 

Heritage Corridor 

www. nps .gov/history/nr/travel/cultural_ 



Viva Florida 500 


Multiple Property Submission 


TR = thematic resources 

MRA = multiple resource area 

MPS = multiple property submission 

(# ) = manuscript # in Florida Master Site File 

(NPS#) = number used by the National Register 

of Historic Places, NPS database 


Archeological Properties of the Naval Live Oaks 
Reservation MPS (#6251) (NPS #64500092) 

Archaeological Resources in the Upper St. Johns River 
Valley MPS (#3896) (NPS #64500093) 

Archaeological Resources of Everglades National Park 
MPS (#6968) (NPS #64500094) 

Archaeological Resources of the Eighteenth- Century 
Smyrnea Settlement of Dr. Andrew Turnbull, Volusia 
County, Florida MPS (#10055) (NPS #645000988) 

Caloosahatchee Culture of Southwest Florida, 500 BC- 
AD 1750 MPS (#3897) (NPS #64500095) 



1733 Spanish Plate Fleet Shipwrecks MPS (#13596) 
(NPS #64500947) 

Southern Florida Sites Associated with the Tequesta and 
Their Ancestors National Historic Landmark/National 
Register Theme Study (#18688) (NPS http://www.nps. 

Thematic or Property Types 

Citrus Industry Resources of Theodore Strawn, Inc. MPS 
(#6275) (NPS #64500097) 

Civil War Era National Cemeteries MPS (federal MPS) 
or (#19156) (NPS #64500098) 

Clubhouses of Florida's Woman's Clubs MPS (#5068) 
(NPS #64500099) 

Early Residences of Rural Marion County MPS (#4282, 
#6286) (NPS #64500103) 

Fish Cabins of Charlotte Harbor MPS (#6290) (NPS 

Florida's Carpenter Gothic Churches (#6272) (NPS 

Florida's Historic Black Public Schools MPS (#12406, 
#18755) (NPS #64500852) 

Florida's Historic Lighthouses MPS (#9541) (NPS 

Light Stations in the United States, 1789-1952 
MPS (#17912) (NPS-prepared) 

Florida's Historic Railroad Resources MPS (#6289) 
(NPS #64500107) 

Florida's Historic World War II Military 
Resources MPS (#6447) (NPS #64500773) 

Florida's New Deal Resources MPS (#11495) 
(NPS #64500918) 

Historic Schools of the Lakeland Special Tax 
School District MPS (#8038) 

Historic Winter Residences of Ormond Beach, 
1878-1925 MPS (#6285) (NPS #64500109) 

John F. Kennedy Space Center MPS (#11239) (NPS 

Mediterranean Revival Style Buildings of Davis Islands 
MPS (#1579) (NPS #64500118) 

Rural Resources of Leon County, 1821-1945 MPS 
(#3658) (NPS #64500124) 

Sarasota School of Architecture MPS (#15045) (NPS 

Tarpon Springs Sponge Boats MPS (#14544) (NPS 

Local Areas (By location, not exact titles) 

Bartow, 1882-1941 MPS (#6284) (NPS #64500096) 

Daytona Beach MPS (#6262) (NPS #64500100) 

DeFuniak Springs MPS (#19158) (NPS #64500101) 

Downtown Jacksonville MPS (#6282) (NPS #64500102) 

Downtown Miami MRA (#1085) (NPS #64000115) 

Fellsmere MPS (#6271) (NPS #64500104) 

Haines City MPS (#6287) (NPS #64500108) 

Homestead MPS (#11616) (NPS #6450110) 

Jacksonville, San Jose Estates Thematic Resource 
(#19163) (NPS #64000119) 

Kissimmee MPS (#3898) (NPS #64500112) 

LaBelle MPS (#19162) (NPS #64500828) 

Lake City MPS (#3899) (NPS #64500113) 

Lake Helen MPS (#6288) (NPS #64500114) 

Lake Wales MPS (#6278) (NPS #64500115) 

Lee County MPS (#4292) (NPS #64500116) 

Leon County, Rural Resources of MPS (#3658) (NPS 

Marianna MPS (#6268) (NPS #64500117) 



Marion County, Early Residences of Rural Marion 
County MPS (#4282, #6286) (NPS# 64500103) 

Miami Beach, North Beach Community (1919-1963) 
MPS (#15779) (NPS #64501022) 

Miami, Biscayne Boulevard, 1925-1937 Thematic Group 

Miami Shores Thematic Resources (#3712) (NPS 

Miami Springs, Country Club Estates Thematic 
Resources (#19160) (NPS #64000114) 

MiddleburgMPS (#6279) (NPS #64500119) 

Mount Dora MPS (#16478) (NPS #64501043) 

Opa-Locka Thematic Resources (#19164) (NPS 

Orange City MPS (#12407) (NPS #64500881) 

Orange Park MPS (#6270) (NPS #64500120) 

Punta Gorda MPS (#6280) (NPS #64500122) 

Rockledge MPS (#6281) (NPS #64500123) 

Sarasota, City of MRA (#6276) (NPS #64000120) 

Sebring MRA (#6277) (NPS #64500125) 

Tampa Heights, 1886-1933 MPS (#13776) 

Titusville MPS (#6283) (NPS #64500127) 

University of Florida Campus MPS (#15358) (NPS 

Venice MPS (#4276) (NPS #64500128) 

Whitfield Estates Subdivision MPS (#19161) (NPS 

Winter Haven MPS (#10142) (NPS #64500130) 

These covers are available as downloads from the 
Florida Master Site File as indicated by (#), and from 
the National Register of Historic Places database, as 
indicated by (NPS #).The Florida Master Site File also 
contains survey reports and Florida National Register 

nominations, all of which contain historical 
contexts for the individual communities. To 
request any of these items, call 850.245.6440 
or email sitefile@dos. state. 

Florida Heritage Trail 

Florida Black Heritage Trail 

Florida Civil War Heritage Trail 
index, cfm 

Florida Cuban Heritage Trail (in English/ 
cubanheritage/index. cfm 

Florida French Heritage Trail (online only) 

Florida Jewish Heritage Trail 
j e wishheritage/index. cfm 

Florida Maritime Heritage Trail 

Coastal Communities 
communities/communities . cfm 

Coastal Environments 
environments/environments. cfm 

Coastal Forts 
forts/forts, cfm 

lighthouses/lighthouses. cfm 

Historic Ports 
ports/ports, cfm 



Historic Shipwrecks 
shipwrecks/shipwrecks . cfm 

Florida Native American Heritage Trail 
index, cfm 

Florida Spanish Colonial Heritage Trail (in English/ 
index, cfm 

Florida Women's Heritage Trail 
index, cfm 

Florida World War II Heritage Trail 
index, cfm 

Florida Folklife Program 

Florida Main Street Program 

Florida Trust for Historic Preservation 

Mission San Luis 

Museum of Florida History 

Panhandle Shipwreck Trail 

Viva Florida 500 

www. facebook. com/ VivaFlorida5 00 

1733 Spanish Galleon Trail 

Social Media 

Facebook Pages 

Florida Certified Local Government Program 


Florida Memory 

twitter, com/fl memory 

Museum of Florida History 

twitter, com/mfhrweet 

Viva Florida 500 

Viva Florida 500 display, Capitol Rotunda, Tallahassee 
Florida Division of Historical Resources 




^- ' ".'■■ ?- ' 

JW»»i i 


1A ft* - / 

LO "V" 

Albin Polasek Museum and Sculpture Garden, Winter Park 
Courtesy Albin Polasek Museum 

VtieAehMnfy M&Ae Tkarv Qfianjtye MoAmalade... 

The handwritten recipe for orange marmalade pictured on 
this page and identified as "Sister Ellas recipe" comes from the 
collection of the Historic Rossetter House Museum in Melbourne. 

When James Rossetter built 
his Eau Gallie home in 1908, 
the town had a population of 
about 200 people, a hotel, and 
thriving commercial district 
on the Indian River. Rossetter 
became a leading merchant 
in the fishing industry and an 
agent for the Standard Oil 
Company. With her father's 
passing in 1921, Caroline 







"Carrie" P. Rossetter took responsibility for the home and 
the Standard Oil Distribution business. Seventy years 
later, with sister Ella F. Rossetter, she sought to secure 
the preservation of their family home, family history, and 
legacy of the Eau Gallie area, with a bequest to make 
their property a historical monument. The Rossetter 
House is now listed on the National Register of 
Historic Places. 

In 1969, the cities of Eau Gallie and Melbourne 

merged, forming modern-day Melbourne. Today, 

the Rossetter House at 1320 Highland Avenue 

in Melbourne and surrounding properties 

stand as a living reminder of Florida s past and 

the people who made it home in the late- nineteenth 


J? **< ***? <*< ^ fro* 



and early- twentieth centuries. The Historic Rossetter House Museum is 

a project of the Florida Historical Society, Inc. and The Rossetter House Foundation, Inc. For more information 

visit For information about the Florida Historical Society, Inc. visit 

Above: Caroline "Carrie" P. Rossetter, circa 1920 
All images courtesy of Historic Rossetter House 
Museum and Gardens 

O^Mnge McVxrnauicw 

Sister Ellas recipe 

Take 1 dozen of sweet juice oranges 

4 lemons, sliced very fine 

5 quarts of water 

Put all together, let stand over night 

In morning boil one hour 

Let stand over night 

In morning boil two hours 

Then add 10 lbs of sugar and 

Cool till it thickens-usually half an hour 

Just as well to boil it one hour the same day it is sliced. 

Castillo San Marcos, St. Augustine Lighthouse 
in the distance 
Florida Division of Historical Resources 

Florida Department of State